What is the full form of WIFI ? | Full form of WI-FI

WIFI: Wireless Fidility

WiFi is a wireless network protocol which establishes data transfer or an Internet connection between electronic devices. It does not require a physical wire connection.

WiFi, also known as wi-fi or local area connection, is what we call wifi.

WiFi refers to a group of wireless network technologies that are based on IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 802.11

WiFi Alliance is a non-profit organization that trademarks the term WiFi.

WiFi, in other words, is a local network connection that allows us to transfer data between electronic devices. It also provides the means for connecting electronic devices like mobiles, computers and laptops. Internet.

WiFi history

In 1997, Dr John O Sullivan, an Australian Radio Astronomer, was accompanied by Terence Percival and Graham Daniel, a fellow Engineer.

The WIFI was discovered and connected to the internet with success.

They created the wireless local area network protocol 802.11 and IEEE 802 for it.

What WIFI does

WiFi allows you to access the Internet from your mobile device even if there is no wired connection.

WiFi connects your mobile device or other devices wirelessly, or over the air using a router or internet.

IEEE, or Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, defines WIFI standards within the 802 family of network specifications.

Here –

Ethernet is using 802.3

Bluetooth uses 802.15

802.11 is used to establish WIFI networking standards

802.11 WiFi standard based upon its Designation-

NameSpeedFrequency
802.11a54 MBPS5 GHz
802.11b11 MBPS2.4 GHz
802.11dNANA
802.11g54 MBPS2.4 GHz
802.11n100+ MBPS2.4 & 5 GHz

Use of WIFI

WiFi allows us to create a local network that can be used to connect devices and transfer data.

  • DATA Transfer between Electronic Devices
  • Internet connection

WiFi makes our lives and internet access easier today.

You can access the internet from anywhere, on your mobile or personal device, and without having to connect wires.

Modern routers are capable of recognizing connected devices and automatically connecting to them when the device is back in the Wi-Fi range.

What devices can be connected to wifi?

We don’t have any electronic devices that aren’t connected to WiFi these days, including our smartphones, laptops, computers, smart TVs, ACs, fridges, security devices and lighting. Even our cars can be connected to WiFi to access many modern facilities.

Today, an electronic device that isn’t connected to WiFi is considered obsolete and unusable.

Wi-Fi Range

WiFi is a local network connection. Its range is therefore limited.

WiFi ranges can reach up to 120 m indoors and 300 m in open spaces.

The router’s capacity and type also affect the range of WiFi.

WIFI: Interesting facts

  • Internet users with broadband connections connect to all of their devices via WiFi. This includes mobiles, laptops and smart TVs.
  • The government provides free WiFi at many public locations.
  • Indian Railways and Google have provided Wi-Fi at over 5500 stations on Indian Railways.
  • Today, many people proudly claim that their home has become a smart house. WiFi is essential for making a home smart.
  • South Korea has the fastest WiFi internet speeds in the world. It is home to more than 100 Mbit/s.
  • Today OTT platforms have become increasingly popular with people around the globe. The availability of WiFi is another reason for their popularity.
  • WiFi was initially not called WiFi. Instead, people used the words Wave Lane and Dragon Fly to describe it.

Other full forms of wifi

WIFI- Wireless Internet for Frequent Interface. In-network connectivity

WIFI- Wireless Internet for Idiots

WIFI-Wire-Free Internet

Detailed Explaination

WiFi is a wireless network technology that uses radio frequencies to transmit data. WiFi allows for high-speed Internet connections, without the need to use cables.

WiFi is a contraction for “wirelessfidelity”, and is commonly used to describe wireless networking technology. WiFi Alliance holds rights to its use as a certification mark on equipment that is certified to 802.11x standards.

WiFi is freedom. It’s freedom from wires. You can connect to the Internet anywhere you like, including a coffee shop or hotel room. It is also 10 times faster than regular dial-up connections. WiFi networks work in unlicensed radio bands 2.4, and have a data rate of either 11 Mbps (802.11b), or 54 Mbps (802.11a).

WiFi-enabled devices (laptops and PDAs) are required to access WiFi. These devices can wirelessly send and receive data in any area with WiFi access.

What’s next?

The focus of wireless has shifted to WiMax, which is wide-area. WiMax is shorthand for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and is defined by IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMax Forum is promoting it.

WiMAX works in a similar way to WiFi but at a larger scale and with faster speeds. An optional nomadic version of WiMAX would allow WiMAX-enabled devices to be connected across large areas, just like cell phones.

What is Wi-Fi?

WiFi stands for Wireless Fidelity. WiFiIt is based upon the IEEE 802.11 standards. It is primarily a local networking (LAN) technology that provides in-building broadband coverage.

WiFi systems currently support a peak physical layer data rate of 54Mbps. Indoor coverage is typically provided over distances of 100 feet.

WiFi is now the standard for last-mile broadband connectivity in homes and offices as well as public hotspots. The coverage range for most systems is typically only 1,000 feet from the access points.

WiFi has a significantly higher peak data rate than 3G systems due to its larger bandwidth (20 MHz), but WiFiWiFi systems were not designed for high-speed mobility.

WiFi has a significant advantage over WiMAX or 3G in that it is easy to access terminal devices. The vast majority of laptops sold today come with a WiFi interface. WiFi interfaces are being added to a wide range of devices including cordless phones and cellular phones as well as cameras and media players.

WiFi is half-duplex

Contention-based TDD systems are used to manage WiFi networks. This means that the access point and mobile stations compete for the same channel. All WiFi networks are only half-duplex because of the shared media operation.

Although there are vendors that sell WiFi mesh configurations, these implementations aren’t defined by the standards.

Channel Bandwidth

WiFi standards specify a fixed bandwidth bandwidth of 25 MHz in 802.11b networks and 20 MHz in 802.11a/g networks.

Wi-Fi – Working Ideas:

Radio Signals

WiFi networking is possible because radio signals are the key. WiFi receivers such as computers or cell phones equipped with WiFi cards pick up radio signals from WiFi antennas. The WiFi card detects signals from WiFi antennas and creates an internet connection between users and the network.

Access points, consisting of antennas and routers, are the main source that transmit and receive radio waves. Antennas work stronger and have a longer radio transmission with a radius of 300-500 feet, which are used in public areas while the weaker yet effective router is more suitable for homes with a radio transmission of 100-150 feet.

WiFi Cards

WiFi cards can be described as invisible cords that connect your computer and the antenna to establish a direct connection to internet.

WiFi cards can be external or internal. If a WiFi card is not installed in your computer, then you may purchase a USB antenna attachment and have it externally connect to your USB port, or have an antenna-equipped expansion card installed directly to the computer (as shown in the figure given above). For laptops, this card will be a PCMCIA card which you insert to the PCMCIA slot on the laptop.

WiFi Hotspots

Installing an access point to the internet is what creates a WiFi hotspot. An access point transmits a signal wirelessly over a small distance. The range is usually around 300 feet. A Pocket PC or other WiFi-enabled device can connect wirelessly to a hotspot when it encounters one.

Hotspots tend to be located near public places such as airports and coffee shops, hotels, bookstores, and other locations. 802.11b is most commonly used for hotspots around the world. While 802.11g is compatible with.11b, it uses a different frequency range, and requires separate hardware, such as an adapter or an a/b/g. Private internet service providers (ISPs) provide the largest public WiFi networks. They charge users a fee for accessing the internet.

Hotspots are increasingly developing around the world. In fact, T-Mobile USA controls more than 4,100 hotspots located in public locations such as Starbucks, Borders, Kinko’s, and the airline clubs of Delta, United, and US Airways. Even select McDonald’s restaurants now feature WiFi hotspot access.

Any notebook computer equipped with integrated wireless can connect to a wireless network using a wireless adapter that has been attached to the motherboard by its manufacturer or a PCMCIA card. All Pocket PCs and Palm units equipped with Compact Flash, SD I/O support or WiFi can also access hotspots.

Hotspots may require WEP keys to connect. This is considered private and secure. Open connections allow anyone with a WiFi card to access the hotspot. To have WEP internet access, the user must enter the WEP key code.

IEEE Standards Wi-Fi

There are many specifications for WLANs that define the 802.11 standard. It is an interface over the air between a wireless client (or two wireless clients) and a base station.

There are many specifications in the 802.11 family

  • 802.11 – This refers to wireless LANs. It provides 1 – and 2-Mbps transmissions in the 2.4GHz band, using either frequency-hopping spread Spectrum (FHSS), or direct-sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS).
  • 802.11a This extension to 802.11 is for wireless LANs. It can reach speeds up to 54 Mbps in 5-GHz bands. 802.11a uses the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), encoding scheme, instead of either FHSS nor DSSS.
  • 802.11b The 802.11 high-rate WiFi extension to 802.11 is for wireless LANs. It allows for a connection of up to 11 Mbps (with fallback to 5.5-2 and 1 Mbps depending upon signal strength) in the 2.4-GHz frequency band. Only DSSS is used in the 802.11b specification. It is important to note that 802.11b is an amendment to the original 802.11 standard, which was added in 1999 to allow wireless functionality to be equivalent to hard-wired Ethernet connections.
  • 802.11g This refers to wireless networks and offers 20+ Mbps in 2.4-GHz.

Wi-Fi Access Protocols

IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs employ a media access control protocol called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collapse Avoidance (CSMA/CA). Although the name may be similar to Ethernet’s Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection, (CSMA/CD), it is a completely different operating concept.

WiFi systems are half-duplex shared media configurations in which all stations transmit and receive the same radio channel. A radio system’s fundamental problem is that a station can not hear while sending and therefore cannot detect collisions. The Distributed Controller Function was created by the 802.11 specification developers.

DCF states that a WiFi station can transmit only if the channel is clear. Every transmission is acknowledged. If a station doesn’t receive acknowledgement, it assumes that a collision occurred. The station will retry after a random waiting period.

As traffic increases, or mobile stations are unable to hear each other, collisions are more common.

Wi-Fi Quality of Service (QoS),

With the adoption of IEEE 802.11e, plans are in place to integrate quality of service (QoS), capabilities into WiFi technology. Two operating modes will be available in the 802.11e standard. One can be used for improving voice service.

  • WiFi Multimedia Extensions (WME), Mandatory
  • WiFi Scheduled Multimedia (WSM), Optional

WiFi Multimedia Extensions (WME).

WiFi Multimedia Extensions uses a protocol called Enhanced Multimedia Distributed Control Access, (EDCA), which extends an enhanced version the Distributed Control Function (DCF), as defined in the original 802.11 MAC.

The enhanced portion is that EDCA will establish eight levels of access priority for the shared wireless channel. The EDCA access protocol is a contention-based protocol. It uses a set of back-off and waiting times to avoid collisions. DCF is a standard protocol that all stations use and has the same priority to transmit on the channel.

Each access priority is assigned a range of waiting intervals, back-off counters and different waiting times with EDCA. Transmissions with a higher access priority receive shorter intervals. A packet-bursting mode is also included in the standard. This allows access points or mobile stations to reserve the channel and send 1-3 to 5 packets per sequence.

WiFi Scheduled Multimedia

WiFi Scheduled Multimedia (WSM) can provide consistent delay services. WSM functions in the same way as the 802.11 MAC’s Point Control Function (PCF).

WSM is a system where the access point broadcasts control messages that force all stations to consider the channel busy and to not transmit. The access point polls stations that are designated for time sensitive service during that period.

Devices must send a traffic profile that describes bandwidth, latency and jitter requirements in order to use the WSM option. The access point will not be able to fulfill the traffic profile if it does not have the resources necessary.

Wi-Fi Security

WiFi security has been a major problem, but better encryption systems are becoming available. Three different encryption methods have been developed for WiFi. These are the techniques that we will be using.

Wired Equivalent Privacy

A RC4-based 40 or 104-bit encryption using a static key.

WiFi Protected Access (WPA).

This new standard is from the WiFi Alliance and uses either the 40- or 104 bit WEP key. However, it changes each packet’s key. This changing key functionality is known as the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol, (TKIP).

IEEE 802.11i/WPA2

IEEE has finalized the 802.11i specification. It is based upon an even stronger encryption technique, the Advanced Encryption Standard. WPA2 is the WiFi Alliance’s designation of products that conform to the 802.11i standard.

To implement 802.11i, however, you will need to upgrade your hardware.

Wi-Fi – Network Services

As service providers began using WiFi to deliver services that it wasn’t originally intended for, the picture has become a bit confusing. Wireless ISPs and WiFi mesh networks that span cities are two examples.

Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISPs).

Wireless ISP (WISP) was one of the businesses that emerged from WiFi. This is a business model that sells an Internet access service via wireless LAN technology. It also provides a shared Internet connection at a designated hot spot.

Technically, the WLAN technology limits access to the service. To use the service, you must be within 100m of the access point (i.e. To use it, you must be within 100m of the access points. Users can either subscribe to a specific carrier’s service monthly or pay an hourly fee to access the service. Although the monthly fee is most economical, intercarrier access arrangements are not common. You will need to be within a hot spot managed by your carrier to access your service.

City-Wide Mesh Networks

Vendors like Tropos Networks and Mesh Networks have created mesh networks that use WiFi’s radio technology to address this limited range.

A radio mesh network allows messages to be transmitted from a variety of access points to a central control station. These networks are able to support mobility because connections are passed from one access point to another as the mobile station moves.

WiFi mesh networks are being used by some municipalities to support public safety (i.e. network to support public safety applications (i.e. terminals in police cruisers), and to provide Internet access for the community (i.e. The city’s hot spot

Radio Modulation – Wi-Fi

Two primary radio transmission methods are used by WiFi systems.

  • 802.11b – 802.11b uses a direct sequence spread spectrum technology called complimentary coded keying. (CCK). The bit stream is then processed using a special code and modulated with Quadrature Phase ShiftKeying (QPSK).
  • 802.11a/g (=54 Mb/s) – Both the 802.11a/g systems and the g systems use orthogonal frequency division multiplexing 64 channels (OFDM). The OFDM modulation system divides the radio spectrum into several sub-channels, and some bits are sent to each. The 64 subcarriers are encoded by the transmitter using Binary Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying or one of the two levels of Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16 or 64-QAM). Some information transmitted is redundant. The receiver doesn’t have to receive all subcarriers in order to reconstruct the information.

Original 802.11 specifications included an option to frequency hopping spectrum (FHSS), however this has been largely abandoned.

Adaptive Modulation

WiFi uses adaptive modulation with varying levels forward error correction to maximize transmission speed and error performance.

The error rate increases when a radio signal is lost or comes into contact with interference. The transmitter will automatically switch to adaptive modulation in these adverse conditions. However, it is more reliable and less efficient.

Wi-Fi – Major Issues

The slow adoption of WiFi technology is due to a few factors.

  • Security Issues – Security issues have kept WiFi adoption from the corporate world behind them. Security consultants and hackers have shown how easy it is to hack the wired equivalent privacy (WEP), which is used in most WiFi connections. Hackers can hack into WiFi networks using readily available software and materials.
  • Interoperability and Compatibility – The main problem with WiFi is its compatibility. 802.11a products do not work with 802.11b. Because of different operating frequencies, 802.11a hotspots wouldn’t help an 802.11b customer. Different vendors release products that are not compatible with one another because of a lack of standardization, harmonization and certification.
  • Billing Problems WiFi vendors are also seeking ways to address the back-end integration problem and billing that has hampered the rollout of commercial WiFi hotspots. There are many options for WiFi billing, including per-day, per-hour, and unlimited monthly connections fees.

Wi-Fi Summary

WiFi is a wireless network technology that uses radio frequencies to transmit data. WiFi allows for high-speed Internet connections, without the need to use cables.

WiFi is a contraction for “wirelessfidelity”, and is commonly used to describe wireless networking technology. WiFi Alliance holds rights to its use as a certification mark on equipment that is certified to 802.11x standards.

WiFi is freedom. It’s freedom from wires. You can connect to the Internet anywhere you like, including a coffee shop or hotel room. It is also 10 times faster than regular dial-up connections. WiFi networks work in unlicensed radio bands 2.4, and have a data rate of either 11 Mbps (802.11b), or 54 Mbps (802.11a).

WiFi-enabled devices (laptops and PDAs) are required to access WiFi. These devices can wirelessly send and receive data in any area with WiFi access.

What’s next?

The focus of wireless has shifted to WiMax, which is wide-area. WiMax is shorthand for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and is defined by IEEE 802.16 standards. The WiMax Forum is promoting it.

WiMAX works in a similar way to WiFi but at a larger scale and with faster speeds. An optional nomadic version of WiMAX would allow WiMAX-enabled devices to be connected across large areas, just like cell phones.

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