POLICE: Public Officer for legal investigations and criminal emergencies
Although the word “Police” doesn’t refer to a specific full form, it is primarily used to denote a Public Officer for criminal investigations and criminal emergencies.
Other possible full forms of POLICE include the following:
- Protection of life and investigation of criminals’ institution
- In an emergency, law protection
- People of law integrity control everyone
- Protection of life in civil institutions
According to the POLICE full-form, the Public Officer for Legal Investigations and Criminal Emergencies are uninformed individuals who are responsible for maintaining law and order in the nation or society.
POLICE is a group that is on duty to enforce laws and regulations to prevent civil disorder and to punish those responsible for it.
Every country, including India, has a police station. The station house officer is responsible for keeping law and order and to capture and punish criminals.
The Prime Police Officers in a Police Station are the Assistant Sub-Inspector, Sub-Inspector and Constables.
Organizations for police
This is mainly the case for organized police or other organizations.
- Uniformed police officer who wears the POLICE uniform to protect law and order in their area.
- Detectives are responsible for investigating and doing detective work.
- Part-time police officers are made up of volunteers and auxiliary officers.
- To deal with specific types of crime, such as traffic law enforcement and crash investigation, special units are created.
- The military police is the section of the military that is responsible for armed force police.
Some interesting facts about Indian Police
- India has 16671 police stations.
- Delhi Police ranks among the top in India for staffing, budget use, and infrastructure.
- Every year, the Indian government publishes a ranking listing of the top 10 police stations in India. According to the 2020 ranking Nongpok Sekmai (Thoubal in Manipur), is the best police station.
- A police officer job can be very challenging. You may have to work all day.
- A police officer job is also very important.
Why do Indian Police wear Khaki?
POLICE Every country has a law system that is in place and there are regulations that must be followed. The uniform of the police officer is an important part of POLICE officers. Each country has its own uniform.
The Indian Police must wear a Khaki uniform. Previously, when India was under British control, the British police used white uniforms.
The white uniform was prone to getting dirty over time so police officers used various methods to conceal this dirt.
They used water from tea leaves and cotton fabric color to dye uniforms once, which gave it the khaki colour. Khaki colour is Hindi for the colour of the mattress.
The uniform didn’t look dirty because of the Khaki colour. Sir Harry Lumsden accepted the Khaki-coloured uniform for Police. This uniform was adopted by the Indian Police over time.
What qualifications are required to be a Police Officer?
You must be a graduate or have a high school diploma to become a police officer.
To become a police officer, candidates must pass a written and oral exam.
Police officers can become eligible for the lowest age limit of 18 years, while those who reach the maximum age can be promoted to 25-27 years.
The education qualification for police constable is 12th, while the education qualification for SP or ASP is a bachelor’s degree.
Are you paid to train police officers?
While they are at the police academy, police officers who have received police training receive a lower salary. When they are made police officers, their salary is converted to the official pay structure for a new officer in the police service.
What if I don’t have a degree but want to join the police?
You don’t need a degree in order to become a Police officer. A bachelor’s degree is required to apply for higher positions in the police force.
Is it hard to be a police officer?
It is equally difficult to become a cop after completing both the academy and field training. Candidats must put all they have learned into practice and put it to use in this form.
As the Director of the National Police Foundation’s Center for Mass Violence Response Studies, (CMVRS), I have learned the impact terrorist acts can have on your entire life.
My life has been devoted to terrorism and targeted violence. How can we prepare for, prevent, respond and recover from tragedies like these?
Terrorist and targeted attacks can have devastating effects on individuals and communities. The suffering of victims, their families and first responders can last a lifetime. It may even affect generations.
Terrorism threats can come from many sources, including organized groups outside of the country, individuals within the country, or the single attacker. No matter the source, community police is crucial in identifying terrorists, preparing communities for response, aiding public safety officials with the response and, when necessary, helping communities heal.
Community Policing and Making connections: The Importance
People who have ties to their communities can identify people who might be radicalized, embrace extremism, or threaten violence against individuals and facilities.
Many people have spoken over the years about community police and how trusting relationships at the community level can be used to prevent crime. These relationships are also extremely successful in identifying people and groups that could pose a threat to targeted violence within our communities.
If law enforcement is to be able to identify those who are a threat to national security, we must recognize our collective responsibility. Trusting relationships are key to community policing. They are vital for preventing crime, terror, and targeted violence.
Real-time data is essential for law enforcement agencies to be able to identify neighborhood challenges, issues and concerns. Law enforcement officers must have this information to engage the community in developing and implementing policies and strategies to stop crime, terrorism and targeted violence.
CMVRS partnered up with the Boston Police Department and the North American Family Institute to create a Youth and Police Initiative Plus program (YPIP). YPIP’s goals were to foster trust between youth and officers, as well as community resilience to extremism among Somali youth living in Boston.
The program brought together youth and police officers to share their knowledge and experience. It ran from April 2018 to June 2019. The sessions covered stereotypes and why police officers behave in certain situations. They also discussed how to better communicate with one another.
Youth shared information about Somalia, the Muslim faith, and the problems faced by Boston youth. Both groups were highly praised for the program’s structure, dialogue, trust, and cultural understanding.
YPIP is a good example of what I mean when I say trusting relationships are important. Community-based counterterrorism programs should be built on human relations. This means that people must be seen as individuals, and not as police officers or according to their religious or cultural beliefs.
We can build trust between ourselves and each other, which will allow us to avoid extremist recruitment, to identify those who have withdrawn from our communities, and to find ways to support them.
A whole-community approach
To prepare for terrorist acts and targeted violence, a whole-of-community approach is required. Public and mental health officials, teachers, firefighters, EMS, emergency managers and faith leaders are all required to engage law enforcement in planning for prevention, response, recovery, and response. Every member of the community can play a vital role in identifying individuals in crisis and providing resources and support.
It is important to identify and involve community resources in drills and exercises so that they are available in a crisis and understand their roles and responsibilities. It is best to establish and strengthen relationships before it is too late.
CMVRS has conducted many critical incident reviews that have shown the value of community planning. The cooperation and coordination between law enforcement, fire, ambulance, hospitals, government officials and community organizations was crucial in saving lives in San Bernardino and other cities like Orlando, Kalamazoo and Broward County.
The Center for Mass Violence Response Studies of the National Police Foundation is an independent, non-partisan organization that allows like-minded people to come together to promote research-based strategy, policy, and operations to defend our communities against the threat from terrorism and targeted violence.
There is no one solution to the problems of terrorism. Community policing is a model that fosters trust, respect and collaboration. To prevent terrorist acts, prepare for crises, respond effectively and help individuals and communities recover after these horrendous events, it is important to have a whole-community approach.
Notes from the Field
The U.S. Department of Justice’s National Institute of Justice (NIJ), is the research, evaluation, and development arm of the National Institute of Justice. The NIJ aims at addressing the most important questions in the criminal justice field, especially at the state- and local level.
David Muhlhausen, Director of NIJ, created the Notes From the Field series in order to let leading voices from the field share their strategies for responding the most pressing issues facing America today.
Notes From The Field is not a research-based publication. It is a collection of lessons from the field, drawn from years of experience and deep thinking about criminal justice issues.
Background of the Indian police services
The modern history of Indian police in India dates back to the beginning of the 19th century. Before the British period, the idea of an independent regular police force was not considered. It has been in existence for some time after the rule began. Warren Hastings introduced several reforms to the police force for the first time in 1774 under Company rule. These reforms were later codified in The Police Act of 1861. Sir Charles Napier was appointed to manage the newly annexed territory, now in Pakistan. He reorganized the police system in this area to combat crime and achieve desired results.
The following principles were the basis of this system:
- The police and military must be totally separated.
- They must function as an independent body.
- Assisting the Collectors with the discharge of law- and order-related responsibilities.
This system allowed for an Inspector General for Police to oversee the law and order in the whole province. The police administration was managed by the Magistrates under the direction of Superintendents of Police. Even the Police Commission of 1860 which is responsible for India’s current police system, did not alter the main principles. The system was further improved by the recommendations of the Police Commission of 1902-03.
The first reference to the Indian Police Service was made in 1917 by Islington Commission Report. Sardar Vallabhbhai Ptel, the first Union Home Ministry, saw the importance in establishing the Civil Services on an Indian basis. He stressed the importance of having a ring service to ensure the country’s integrity under a federal constitution in 1949. “…The Union will go, but you won’t have a united India without a good All India Service that has the freedom to voice its opinion …”. The Indian Police Service was created as an All India Service.
Police system in ancient India
The origin of police can be traced back to the Vedic period. Both the Rig as well as the Atharva Veda refer to certain crimes that were known to Vedic people. Evidence supports the existence of security forces in Harappan. Although it is impossible to determine the exact date of the Vedic criminal justice organization, the Mauryan period shows important characteristics of the same. Kautilya’s Arthashastra (310 BC), is a comprehensive treatise about the criminal justice system. It is a guide for modern police officers. It includes references to DANVARIKA and ANTEVANSIKA as well as PRADESIKAS MAHAMATRAS, RAJJUKAS and MAHAMATRAS. There were three types of police: dandpal and durgapal.
Fa Hein, the Chinese traveller, and Magasthenese (the GREEK Ambassador) have detailed accounts of the Gupta government. Dandikas were then the highest ranking officers. Other officers, such as Nagar Shreshthi and Rabasika are also mentioned. This period saw the development of a criminal justice system that lasted for between five and six hundred years. Only difference between these two periods was that the Mauryan system had a centralized structure, while the Gupta system had a decentralized system. The basic structure of the police system, which included city police, palace police and village police, was not altered by different kings.
Police system in medieval India
No mention is made of police organizations anywhere. This may have been because the focus was more on military occupation and conquests than any attempt to consolidate or manage civil administration. In India, the Muslim conquerors tried to implement the police system according to the Indian model. However, the system for administering justice, punishment and policing was Islamic and was based upon the Holy Quran. The Sultanate period saw the Hindu population subject to a new law. Pandits were involved to interpret and give their opinions on the Hindu law. Muhtasibs and Muqaddams were officials responsible for administration.
Following the Islamic law, punishments were severe, including flaying alive and cutting noses, ears or forearms. This must have led to deep hatred of police officers.
The Sultan was at the center of power, political activity and the centre of all political activity during this period. Faujdar was responsible for the criminal justice delivery system at the provincial levels and was entrusted with maintaining peace and security. Kotwal was a magistrate, police chief, and municipal officer all in one. Chaukidar was responsible to manage the village administration. The Mughals had an autocratic, military government. Both the justice delivery system and the police organizations were weak during this period.
Modern India’s Police System
British India Phase
The British victory at Plassey in 1757 and the fall of the Mughal Empire saw any police system in place in the region further corrupted.
The Indian Penal Code was created in 1862 and the Criminal Procedure Code was established. In 1872, the Evidence Act was enacted. The Qazis and Muftis were eliminated, and the Pandits, along with the Islamic and Hindu laws, were replaced. Although there were some changes in the administrative function by the Britishers, the Mughal framework was still used for police policing. The Mughal ranks of Kotwals and Thanedar, Pargana and Darogah were maintained. But, slowly, the Perso-Arabic model was changed and the British method of policing adopted.
Pre Independence Era
The Mughal Empire began to crumble in the early 19th century. Until the middle of the 20th century, there wasn’t a satisfactory police system due to British inexperience and ignorance about the country. The Zamindars continued to police until Cornwallis’s 1792 visit to India as Governor General. He abolished the Zamindari system and gave Thanedars responsibility for maintaining law and order. Other reforms were also implemented. Later, Napier’s model of policing culminated in the Indian Police Act 1861. This is the basis of the current police system.
Indian Police Act of 1860
The British realized that they were at risk of losing power after the 1857 rebellion and decided to protect their supremacy and suppress all opposition to it. In 1860, a Police Commission was established to ensure that police are an effective instrument in the detection and prevention of crime.
The system was designed in a way that was completely different from the British system, which was widely celebrated around the world as a symbol for democratic policing. It was designed to meet the demands of trade and company profit, and to ensure that resources were not hampered. The structure was developed by the Mughals in 17th century and included many features and names such as Daroga, Faujdar and Kotwal. The Act established a uniform police system throughout the country. The Act relieved the District Magistrates of their duty to supervise the local police. It made them more organized, professional, and disciplined. The Act’s system of policing is still in effect and has brought uniformity to administration. The general conditions for crime control were not satisfactory due to poor, famine and other adverse circumstances like a shortage of force. In 1902, the second All India Police Commission was established to investigate and make recommendations for improvement. However, nothing concrete was taken according to the recommendations for improving the forces until independence.
The imperial forces opened to Indians after 1920. They had to pass entrance exams. Despite all the recommendations and pronouncements, Indianization of the services was slow. Because of the inability to find Europeans, Indians were able to be appointed to the service later. India adopted the 1861 system in all its basic aspects after independence.
The current structure of India’s police system
The two main ways of recruiting senior police officers after 1860 were to firstly, appoint officers from the British Army and then, nominate them from among the younger sons of landed gentlemen in the UK. These two methods were eliminated in 1893. The combined competitive exam in London was used to recruit officers. Only Europeans were allowed to take it. Later, it was made available to Indians. The Union Public Service Commission conducts an annual Combined Civil Services Examination to recruit. Article 312 of India’s Constitution mentions the All India Services. The basic training required for probationers is very rigorous in terms of physical academics, arms and other activities.
The Constitution states that the police force is a subject of the state. The state police manual contains rules, regulations, and guidelines that states can use to guide the police. India’s police force organization is uniform across all states. The Director-General Police (DGP) is the head of a state’s police force. A state can be further divided into zones, ranges, or districts. An officer with the rank of Superintendent is responsible for leading the district force. A range is a group of districts that is headed by an officer with the rank of Deputy Inspector General Police (DIG). A zone is composed of at least two ranges that are headed by an Inspector General of Police (IG). Sub-divisions, such as circles or police stations, are also sub-divisions of districts. There are two types of police in a district: the civil police and armed police. The former is responsible for controlling crime and the latter handles law and order issues and can also be used to respond to an emergency situation.
Influence of the past police system on today
The current Indian Police system and structure are based on an Act 131 year old, the Police Act of1861. Within a span of 90 years, the workings of the police have been twice examined at an All India level. The first was the Indian Commission of 1902-3 under the British regime, and the second was the National Police Commission in 1977. They found that police were inefficient, lacked organization and training, as well as lacking public relations, welfare, and machinery to redress grievances. It was also viewed as oppressive and corrupt. Even after independence, there was no better system for police administration. Police officers still need to change their approach and attitude.