USSR Full Form Hindi|

Definition:Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Category:Regional » Countries

सोवियत सोशलिस्ट रिपब्लिक (USSR)

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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), or Soviet Union, was the first country to form a government based on the system known as Communism. It existed only from 1922 to 1991. It was, however, one of the most powerful nations in the world for a large portion of that period.

The Soviet Union was the most populous country ever to exist. It covered almost two-thirds of the United States’ area, covering more than 8.6million square miles (22.3million square kilometers) in Europe.

The Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics or states. The largest and most powerful was the Russian republic, now called Russia. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the modern names of the republics. The capital of the Soviet Union was Moscow.

The Soviet Union’s last years had more than 290 million people, making it the third largest country in the world. There were more than 100 different ethnic groups in the country. The largest group was the ethnic Russians. Uzbeks and Belarusians were the next largest groups, followed by Ukrainians, Uzbeks and Kazakhs. Russian was the national language. However, there were more than 200 languages in the country.

Religion was not approved by the Soviet government. Despite this, the Russian Orthodox Christian Church survived. In some republics, there were also many Muslims or Islam-followers.

Millions of people moved to cities from their farms during the Soviet Union’s existence. Two out of three Soviet citizens had lived in a city by 1991. The largest cities were Moscow, Saint Petersburg (now Saint Petersburg), Kiev (now in Ukraine).

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All aspects of life in the Soviet Union were controlled by the government. People were forbidden from speaking out against the government. The government also stopped artistic expression during the 1930s and 1940s. Writers and artists were permitted to only speak positively about the Soviet system. Many writers and artists were sent to prison by the government. Others fled the country.

Some Soviet writers still produce great work. Boris Pasternak was awarded the Nobel prize in literature in 1958. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn received it in 1970. Pasternak refused the award and Solzhenitsyn was forced from the country.

The Soviet Union was one of the most powerful economies in the world during its peak period. The nation’s wealth was largely derived from agriculture, mining, and heavy industries. Many large-scale projects, such as dams or canals, were completed by the government.

Communist teachings say that individuals shouldn’t be allowed to own businesses. The Soviet Union had almost all its factories and businesses owned by the government. The Communist Party leaders determined what products would be produced and how much people would pay. This system caused shortages in many products that people required.

Also, the Communist system was supposed to provide workers and farmers a fair share in the country’s wealth. Farmers suffered hugely when the government took their land and established large farms known as collective farms. The Soviet Union was forced to purchase food from other countries by the 1970s to feed its citizens.

The Russian Empire was the original source of the Soviet Union. The tsar, or emperor, fell from power in a revolution that took place in 1917. The Bolsheviks, a later group, came to power in the same year. The Communist Party was later renamed this group. It fought other Russians during a civil war that lasted between 1918 and 1920. Vladimir Lenin led the Communists. The war was won by the Communists.

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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was created by the Communists on December 20, 1922. Russia was one of the republics. Most of the other republics were former Russian Empire regions. These republics were also home to a variety of non-Russian organizations.

Lenin died in 1924. A few years later, a Communist Party leader named Joseph Stalin came to power. Stalin was the most cruel ruler that ever lived. Stalin killed farmers who didn’t want to work in collective farms. He exported crops to other countries and made his own people hungry. He caused the deaths of up to 10 million Soviet Union citizens in the 1930s.

Just before World War II started, Germany and Soviet Union secretly agreed to not attack each other in 1939. The war began when Germany invaded Poland. The Soviet Union and Germany divided Poland. The Soviet Union also seized Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Estonia and created Soviet republics.

However, Germany broke the agreement in June 1941 and invaded Soviet Union. To fight Germany, the Soviet Union joined the United States of America and Great Britain.

The war caused terrible suffering for the Soviet Union. More than 20 million Soviet citizens had already died by the time Germany surrendered to it in 1945.

Despite all its losses, the Soviet Union was still Europe’s greatest power after World War II. Soviet troops invaded many countries in Eastern Europe while fighting the Germans. These countries were ruled by communist governments between 1945 and 1948. These governments were controlled by them. This was a worrying development for many in the United States. Both countries increased their military forces. The rivalry between them came to be known as the Cold War. Both countries also developed nuclear weapons in addition to their armies. Many were concerned that nuclear war would result. However, neither country used the weapons.

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After Stalin’s 1953 death, Soviet life was better. In the following years, Nikita Khrushchev was elected to power. Khrushchev implemented reforms that upset other Communist party leaders. He lost power in 1964.

Some countries in eastern Europe tried to profit from the reforms. They rebelled against Soviet rule. The Soviet Union invaded Hungary and Czechoslovakia to stop the uprisings in 1956 and 1968, respectively.

In 1979, the Soviets invaded Afghanistan. Afghanistan, an Asian country, borders the Soviet Union. The rebels were trying to overthrow the Communist government. The United States supported rebels. The Soviet Union had to leave Afghanistan in 1989 after it was defeated.

Mikhail Gorbachev was elected to power in 1985. Gorbachev was determined to create a more free society and an economic stronger. Gorbachev made changes that allowed Soviet citizens to want more freedom. People in certain Soviet republics started to ask for more independence in 1987.

A series of peaceful revolutions started in 1989. The Soviet Union was able to free eastern European countries from Soviet rule. The Soviet republics gained their independence in 1991. The Soviet Union was ended on the last day in 1991. It was replaced by fifteen separate countries.

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