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Definition:Thematic Apperception Test
Category:Medical » Psychology

थीमैटिक एपेरसेप्शन टेस्ट (TAT) 

thematic apperception test

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The Thematic Apperception Test, or TAT, is a type of projective test that involves describing ambiguous scenes. Popularly known as the “picture interpretation technique,” it was developed by American psychologists Henry A. Murray and Christina D. Morgan at Harvard University in the 1930s.1 To date, the TAT is one of the most widely researched and clinically used personality tests.

TAT is a set of pictures that show people various ambiguous characters, scenes, and situations.

Then, they are asked to tell as dramatic of a story for each image as possible.

The TAT complete edition includes 31 cards. Murray recommended that you use approximately 20 cards, and choose those depicting characters similar to your subject.

Today, many practitioners only utilize between 5 and 12 cards, often selected because the examiner feels that the scene matches the client’s needs and situation.

When selecting scenes, practitioners use their best judgement to determine which ones are most likely to yield useful information.

Therapists can use the TAT in many different ways. 3

TAT is frequently criticized for not being standardized. This means that there are no formal scoring systems or rules of administration. The test is often administered by different clinicians. Murray’s complicated scoring system is not widely used by practitioners. Instead, they rely on clinicians’ subjective interpretations and clinical opinions.

Even though clinicians may use the same scoring system they might use different cards or different numbers of cards. It is difficult to estimate reliability and validity and it is almost impossible to compare the results.

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TheThematic Apperception TestOrTATIs aProjective psychological testIt is. It has been historically one of the most popularly taught and researched tests. The TAT taps subjects’ physiological responses, according to its adherents.unconsciousTo revealRepressedCertain aspectsPersonality?MotivesAndNeedsForAchievement?PowerAndIntimacyAndProblem-solvingCapabilities

TAT, also known as picture interpretation technique, is a series of provocative and ambiguous images that the subject is asked about. The subject is then asked to tell a story. For each image, the subject is required to tell a dramatic story.

If these elements are omitted, particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities, the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly.

The standard TAT form has 31 picture cards. There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. Some show male figures while others show female figures. Others show ambiguous genders. One card can be left blank. The cards were initially designed to match the subject’s age and gender. However, any card can be used with any subject. The majority of practitioners select a set of around ten cards. They either use cards they think are useful or they believe will encourage the subject to express their emotions.

Hand holding a paper family and umbrella on green background

TAT is a projective assessment. It is similar to the Rorschach Test in that it is based on the subject’s projections onto the ambiguous images. To complete the assessment, every narrative that a subject creates must be recorded and analyzed in order to discover underlying needs, attitudes, or patterns of reactions. While most clinicians don’t use formal scoring systems for TAT stories, there are several formal scoring methods that can be used to analyze them consistently and systematically. The following are two common research methods:

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American psychologists Henry A. Murray, Christiana D., Morgan, at Harvard in the 1930s, created TAT to examine the inner dynamics of personality. They did this by exploring the dominant drives, conflicts, motives, and interests. Howard P Vincent, Melville scholar, says that the TAT was created when Dr. Henry A. Murray (psychologist and Melvillist) adapted Melville’s implicit lesson from “Doubloon” to a larger, creative, therapeutic purpose.

Psychoanalysts and clinicians used the TAT to assess emotionally disturbed patients after World War II.

In the 1970s, Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists in the use of the TAT to help clients better understand themselves and encourage personal growth.

Declining adherence to the Freudian principle of repression on which the test is based has caused the TAT to be criticized as false or outdated by some professional psychologists[citation needed]. They claim that the TAT cannot be proven to be valid (that it measures what it claims it does), or reliable (that it produces consistent results over time due to the difficulty of standardizing the subjects’ narratives).

TAT cards are criticised by some for their outdated characters and environments. This creates a psychological or cultural distance between patients and stimuli, which makes it less likely that they will identify with them. Researchers also found that subjects who were given photos evoked negative stories more than those using the TAT cards. This led researchers to conclude that this was due to differences in the stimuli used.

In a 2005 dissertation,[5] Matthew Narron, Psy.D. These issues were addressed by Matthew Narron, Psy.D. in a 2005 dissertation. The old TAT yielded more precise time references than the new TAT, according to the results.

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The TAT is still widely used for psychological research, including dreams, fantasies and mate selection. It can also be used to study motivations and why people choose their profession, despite criticisms. It is sometimes used in a psychological or psychiatric context to assess personality disorders and thought disorders. It is often used in routine psychological assessments, usually without a formal scoring system. This allows for the exploration of emotional conflicts and object relationships [7].

TAT is used widely in France and Argentina, using a psychodynamic approach.

The test is used by the Israeli army to evaluate potential officers. [citation needed]

It is also used in India by the Services Selection Board. [citation needed]

Charlie Gordon, the main character in Daniel Keyes’ Flowers For Algernon, writes in his March 6 progress report that he received a “Thematic Apreciation Test.” He says that he doesn’t know the first 2 werds, but he knows what the test means. It must be passed or you will get poor marks.

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