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PhD

Definition:Philosophiae DoctorLatin[Doctor of Philosophy]
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Doctor of Philosophy

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Doctor of PhilosophyAbbreviated asPh.?PhD?D.Phil.OrDPhilInEnglishOriginal asDr.Philos.(for theLatin philosophiae doctorOrdoctor philosophiaeIn many countries, apostgraduate academic degreeAward byUniversities. A university level is also known as an aDoctorateThe level of philosophy can vary depending on the country, institution and time period. This includes entry-level research degrees up to advanced doctorates.higher doctorates. The academic title of Professor is awarded automatically to a person who has earned a doctorate in philosophy.Doctor.File:Dphil gown.jpg

Oxford University Doctor of Philosophy dressed in academic attire

In the context of academic degrees, the term “philosophy” does not refer solely to the field of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is “love of wisdom”. All fields, other than medicine, theology, and law, were known in Europe as philosophy. In Germany, as well as elsewhere in Europe, the faculty of philosophy was the primary faculty of (liberal arts). The doctorate of Philosophy as we know it today was originally a doctorate at Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitat in liberal arts. Many countries still award the doctorate of philosophical only in philosophy.

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PHD ALL DETAILS

The universities in Medieval Europe had four faculties. There was the basic faculty for arts and three faculties at the higher faculties of medicine, theology and law (canonical, civil). These faculties all confer intermediate degrees (bachelors of arts, law, medicine, and of theology) as well as final degrees.

 In the beginning, the title of doctor and master were interchangeable for final degrees. However, by the middle of the Middle Ages, the terms Master, Doctor, Doctor of Divinity, Doctor, and Doctor in Medicine became standard.

The German and Italian universities used the term Doctor for all faculties. Doctorates from higher faculties were not equivalent to the Ph.D. degrees in that they were granted for advanced scholarship and not original research. 

There was no dissertation nor original work required. Only lengthy residency requirements and exams were required. Besides these degrees there was the licentiate. This was originally a license to teach.

the master or doctoral degree

It was awarded just before the awarding of the master or doctoral degree by the diocese where the university was located. Later, it became an academic degree in its very own right, especially in continental universities. The full course of study could lead to, for example, Bachelor, Licentiate, Master, Bachelor, Licentiate, Licentiate, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor in Medicine. However, there were exceptions to this rule.

For example, regular monastic order members could bypass the arts faculty and leave the university before graduating with a Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts, Master of Medicine, or Doctor of Medicine.

The educational reforms in Germany in the early 19th century, which were most prominently embodied by the Humboldt University, changed this situation. In Germany, the arts faculty was called the faculty of philosophy. It began to demand contributions to research.

This dissertation would be used for their final degree which was titled Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated Ph.D.). Originally, this was the German equivalent of Master of Arts. Although the arts faculty was established in the Middle Ages with a curriculum based on the trivium or quadrivium, it became the home of all courses in sciences and humanities by the 19th century.

After completing a bachelor’s degree at an American college

These reforms were extremely successful and the German universities began to attract foreign students from the United States. After completing a bachelor’s degree at an American college, the American students would travel to Germany to pursue a Ph.D. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 Yale University started granting the Ph.D. degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor’s degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis/dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.[6] This research degree of doctor of philosophy was the first to be given in North America.[7] The current triple structure of bachelor-master-doctor degrees in one discipline was therefore created on American soil by fusing two different European traditions – the medieval B.A. The M.A. Degrees, which are awarded after a course in study and inherited from British Universities. The doctorate name was changed in Germany after the division of the philosophy faculty – e.g. Dr. nat. nat.

The Ph.D. degree was introduced in America in 1900. It then spread to Canada in 1917. In first instance, in particular at the University of London (from about 1860 onwards), the degrees of Doctor of Science (DSc) and Doctor of Literature (DLit) were introduced, which could be awarded upon presentation of a thesis containing original work. However, this did not provide research training and was not able to attract foreign students. In 1917, the current Ph.D. or D.Phil. degree was introduced. In 1917, the current degree of Ph.D. (or D.Phil.) was established.

The Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was in large part taken over by secondary education. This is evident by the continued use of the Baccalaureat degree in France, which was obtained through secondary studies. The Humboldt University reforms transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its successors, such as the Faculty of Sciences, from a lower faculty to one comparable with the Faculties of Medicine and Law. Similar changes were seen in other European universities. The triple degree structure of Bachelor (or candidate), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD) was common in many other European universities.

The Faculty of Philosophy or Arts

The Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was in large part taken over by secondary education. This is evident by the continued use of the Baccalaureat degree in France, which was obtained through secondary studies. The Humboldt University reforms transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its successors, such as the Faculty of Sciences, from a lower faculty to one comparable with the Faculties of Medicine and Law. Similar changes were seen in other European universities. The triple degree structure of Bachelor (or candidate), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD) was common in many other European universities.

However, the meanings of different degrees differed from one country to the next. This is still true for pontifical degrees in canon and theology. In Sacred theology, for example, the degrees are Bachelor of Sacred Theology(STB), Licentiate of Sacred Theology [STL], and Doctor of Sacred Theology[STD]). In Canon law, the degrees are Bachelor of Canon Law (“JCB”) and Doctor of Canon Law (“JCL”).

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There are many requirements to be awarded a Ph.D. degree. These requirements vary from one school to the next. To be eligible for a PhD program, a student must have an Honours or Master’s degree with high academic standing. 

Many universities in the USA, Canada, and Denmark require coursework, in addition to research, in order to obtain Ph.D. degrees. This is not the case in other countries, such as the UK. Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a bachelor’s degree or equivalent or higher.

Candidats must submit a thesis, project, or dissertation. In some countries, a panel appointed by universities must review the work. In other countries, a panel consisting of experts examiners reviews the dissertation to determine if it is acceptable in principle and what issues need to be addressed before it can be approved.

For their research doctorates, some universities outside of English-speaking countries have adopted similar standards to the Anglophone PhD degree (see Bologna process). [12]

A Ph.D. candidate or student (abbreviated Ph.D.c][13]) is required to study on campus with close supervision. Some universities accept part-time students who are enrolled in distance education or e-learning technology.

A ” sandwich Ph.D.” program allows Ph.D. candidates to spend less time at one university during their entire studies. Instead, Ph.D. candidates spend their first and last periods at home universities and then conduct research at another institution.

Many PhD students pursue their PhD

Many PhD students pursue their PhD because they are motivated by their desire for more education beyond the undergraduate level, scientific or humanistic curiosity, the desire for personal development, service to others and the desire to contribute to the academic world, to serve the community, or to help others. Although a doctorate is required for a career in academia, it may be possible to attain high-ranking positions in certain countries without one. 

While a higher salary may be a motivator, it is often not the case. Casey’s research shows that PhDs have a 26% earnings advantage over other subjects. However, masters degrees already offer a 23% premium. This is a modest return on the individual, or an overall deficit when lost earnings are taken into account, but Casey claims that there are substantial benefits for society from additional research training. However, masters degrees already provide a premium of 23%. Many PhD students have to borrow money to complete their degrees.

The Economist published an article that criticized the state of PhDs.[17] Richard B. Freeman explained that only 20% of life science PhDs end up working in research, according to pre-2000 data. Canada has a low overflow of PhD holders. However, 80% of postdoctoral fellows in Canada earn less than the average worker (roughly $38,000 per year) during their research tenure. 

There is a shortage in PhDs only in fast-developing countries like Brazil and China

There is a shortage in PhDs only in fast-developing countries like Brazil and China. Higher education often offers little incentive for students to complete PhD programs quickly, and may even be an incentive to slow them down. The United States created the Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 using seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. 

Although the Doctor of Arts degree focuses on pedagogy and not research, it was designed to reduce the time required to complete it. Germany is one of few countries that are actively engaged in these issues. It has done so by redefining PhD programs to train for jobs outside academia but still at top-level positions. 

The large number of PhD holders in law, engineering, and economics at the top of corporate and administrative ranks is a sign of this development. The EngD has been introduced by the UK’s research councils since 1992. Mark C. Taylor believes that a complete reform of PhD programs in nearly all fields in the U.S. is required. This pressure will have to come from multiple sources (students and administrators, the public and private sector, etc.). These issues and others are discussed in an April 2011 issue of the journal Nature.[18][19][20][21]

required for research jobs

A PhD is often required for research jobs. However, many peer-reviewed journals publish research papers without mentioning academic certificates. Letters after authors’ names should not be necessary as the quality of peer-reviewed publications is expected to be obvious. However, research grant applicants may need to disclose the academic certificates they hold.

This could lead to applicants being accused of self-interest by academic reviewers, whose employers might have a financial stake. Research publications must be of self-evident quality. PhDs in research occupations play a different role than professional qualifications in other areas. This is considered a closed shop.

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UNESCO states that “Programmes to be classified at ISCED level 8 are referred to in many ways across the world such as PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar terms. It is important to remember that ISCED level 8 should not include programmes with similar names to “doctor”, provided they meet the criteria in Paragraph 263. [22]

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Also see: Education Argentina

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To be admitted to a PhD program at a public Argentinian University, one must have a Master’s or Licentiate degree. Non-Argentinian Masters’ degrees are usually accepted into a PhD program if they come from a recognized university.

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Postgraduate students often finance their tuition and living expenses by working as teachers or researchers at state-run and private institutions. However, many international institutions such as the Fulbright Program (OAS) and the Organization of American States, have been known to offer full scholarships that include housing apportions.

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A doctoral candidate must have completed at least two years of research and course work as an undergraduate student. The work must be presented in a thesis or dissertation under the guidance of a tutor or director and then reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. The Committee should include at least one external examiner. After a successful defense, the candidate’s dissertation is awarded the academic degree of Doctor.

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Also see: Education in Australia, Australian Qualifications Framework

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To be eligible for a PhD program in Australia, applicants must demonstrate their ability to conduct research in the chosen field. A Bachelor’s degree is required with either first-class, second-class honours or both. Both research Master’s and coursework Masters’ degrees with a 25% research component can be considered equivalent. After demonstrating enough progress, research Master’s degree candidates can ‘upgrade to PhD candidature.

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Sometimes, PhD students can be offered a scholarship to help them study for their PhD. Most commonly, these scholarships are the Australian Postgraduate Award (APA), which is funded by the Australian government and provides a living stipend of around A$22,500 per year. This amount is tax-free. APAs are usually paid for a period of three years. However, a six-month extension can be granted if the student is unable to work. Many PhD students find themselves living below the poverty line due to rising living costs.[27] There are other funding options for Australian students.

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Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens do not have to pay course fees for their PhD or research master’s degrees. The only exception is the student services fee (SSAF), which is determined by each university. This fee typically amounts to the highest amount allowed by Australia. Unless they are awarded a scholarship, all fees are paid by the Australian government.

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There are many requirements for completion. The majority of Australian PhD programs don’t require coursework. Credit points are only awarded for the final product of the research. This is typically an 80,000-word thesis that contributes significantly to the field. External examiners are specialists in the field and have not been involved with the research. The candidate’s university nominates the examiners. Often, the identities of the examiners are not disclosed to the candidate until they have completed the examination. Due to the distances the examiners would have to travel, oral defenses are not usually part of the examination.

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Admission to a PhD program at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master‘s degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor’s degree to a PhD program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master’s program (without having to complete the Master’s).

An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examination scores. Prospective PhD students often have to pass the comprehensive, or qualifying exam. This is usually done in the second year of the graduate program. 

The qualifying exam is usually passed to allow for continued enrollment in the graduate program. This examination can be taken in two formats: oral examination by the student’s committee (or a separate qualifying board) or written tests that test the student’s knowledge of a specialized topic (see below), or both.

At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (e.g., Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)). The student might also need to be proficient in another language depending on their field. Potential students applying to French-speaking universities might also need to have some English language proficiency.

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Some students may work at the university, or student jobs within it, but in certain programs, students must agree to limit their time spent on activities (e.g. employment) that are not related to their studies. This is especially true if funding has been provided. This is a requirement for large, prestigious scholarships such as the NSERC.

Most PhD students in Canada receive an award that covers part or all the tuition for their first four years. This is also known as a tuition waiver or tuition deferral. Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. 

All PhD candidates may need to teach in some programs. This may be under the supervision of their supervisors or regular faculty. These funding sources are not the only ones available. There are many competitive scholarships, bursaries and awards, including those offered by NSERC, CIHR or SSHRC.

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The first two years of studies are generally devoted to the completion of coursework and the comprehensive exams. The student can be called a “PhD student” (or “doctoral student”) at this stage. It is expected that the student will have completed all of the required coursework by this stage. It is expected that the comprehensive exams will be passed by the student between 18 and 36 months after registration.

The student is officially a PhD candidate after passing the comprehensive exams. The student will spend the majority of his or her time on research and culminate in a PhD thesis. Final requirement: The defense of the thesis is required. This is available at some universities, but not all. The average time it takes to complete a PhD at Canadian universities is between four and six years.

[citation needed]. However, it is not unusual for students to not complete all requirements in six years. This is due to the fact that funding packages may only support students for two to four years. Many departments allow program extensions at their discretion. Alternate arrangements allow students to allow their registration in the program to lapse after six years. They can then re-register once the thesis has been submitted in draft form. 

Graduate students must pay tuition fees until their thesis is submitted to the thesis office. This means that a PhD student who delays or defers the initial submission of their thesis is still obligated by law to pay tuition fees until the thesis office has received it in good standing.

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A Master’s degree program is required for students pursuing a PhD. This takes two years after graduating with a Bachelor’s Degree (five years total). The candidate must secure funding and a doctoral advisor (Directeur des theses) who will provide habilitation during the doctoral program.

There are two types of Masters programs: Master Professional, which prepares students for the work world; and Master of Research (Masterrecherche), which encourages research. The PhD admission is granted by a graduate school (in French, “ecole doctorale”).

 The graduate school offers courses for PhD students. However, the student must continue his/her laboratory research. His/her research can be done in a lab, at a university or in a business. The company may hire the student to work as an engineer. In this case, both the tutor of the company and the professor from the lab supervise the student. Generally, the PhD degree is valid for 3-4 years after completion of the Master’s degree.

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Funds for research from the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research are the main source of funding PhD studies. A short-term employment agreement, also known as a doctoral contract, is the most common. The employer is the institution of higher learning and the employee is the PhD candidate. The student can request funds from a company that can house him/her (as is the case for PhD students doing their research at a company). Other resources include grants from local/city associations and other associations.

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In India, generally a Masters degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. The ACSIR, NITs, and IITs offer direct admission to a Ph.D program after completing a bachelor’s degree. A Masters in Philosophy (M.Phil.), is required for certain subjects. It is a prerequisite for starting a Ph.D. in some subjects.

Many changes have occurred in India’s Ph.D. rules over the past few years [citation needed]. The new rules state that most universities will conduct entrance exams for general ability and a selected subject.

 The shortlisted candidates must pass these exams and then appear for an interview with the supervisor/guide. Students are required to present their research proposal at the start, provide progress reports, make a presentation before submission, and defend the thesis in an open defense viva-voce.

Germanyedit | edit source

Also see: Education In Germany

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German doctoral programs are generally admitted on the basis that a candidate has a master’s, diploma, magister or staatsexamen in a related field and above-average grades. The candidate must find a tenured professor (or Privatdozent) to supervise the dissertation during the doctoral program. Informally, this supervisor is called Doktorvater and Doktormutter. This literally translates to “doctor’s father” or “doctor’s mother”.

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Doctoral candidates (Doktorand/-in), or doctoral students, are generally not required to attend formal classes or lectures; instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. Many doctoral candidates also work as research assistants or teaching assistants (TAs), in addition to their doctoral studies.

Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs (“graduate schools”) that offer funding for doctoral study.

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The length of a doctoral program will vary depending on the area of research. However, it is common to require three to five years of full time research.

The average age of Ph.D. students is 32.7 years as of 2012.[30]

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German-speaking countries; most Eastern European nations, successor states to the Soviet Union; most of Africa, Asia and many Spanish-speaking areas, the equivalent degree to a Doctor in Philosophy is simply “Doctor” (Doktor). The subject area is identified by a Latin suffix (e.g. “Dr. med. Doctor medicinae; Doctor of Medicine; Dr. rer. nat. Doctor Rerum Naturalium, Doctor in the Natural Sciences; “Dr. phil Doctor philosophiae is Doctor of Philosophy. Dr. “Dr. iuris” is Doctor of Laws.

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Template:Over Coverage The degree of Candidate of Sciences

- Kandidat Nauk was the first advanced research degree in the USSR and in certain Eastern Bloc countries (Czechoslovakia and Hungary). It is still recognized in some post-Soviet countries (Russian Federation and Ukraine, Belarus, and others). The "Guidelines to the Recognition of Russian Qualifications in Other Countries" states that countries with a two-tier system for doctoral degrees (like Russia, Poland, Austria, Switzerland, or some post-Soviet countries) should consider the degree of Kandidat Nauk for recognition. In countries with only one doctoral level, the degree should be recognized as equivalent to the doctoral degree. As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications (ISCED 2011,[31] par.270), the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat Nauk) of the former USSR counties is usually considered at the same level as the doctorate or PhD degrees of those countries.[32][33] According to the Joint Statement by the Permanent Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Lander of the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK), German Rectors' Conference (HRK) and the Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation, the degree of Kandidat Nauk is recognised in Germany at the level of the German degree of Doktor and the degree of Doktor Nauk at the level of German Habilitation.[34][35] The Russian degree of Kandidat Nauk is also officially recognised by the Government of the French Republic as equivalent to French doctorate.[36][37] In Ukraine, the Supreme Certifying Commission (official English self-denomination, also known as Higher Attestation Commission or "VAK", Template:Lang-ua), before it was merged into the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sport of Ukraine, would issue official international diploma supplements to holders of Ukrainian degrees of Kandydat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences, Template:Lang-ua)[38] stating that the degree was "comparable to the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D.".[39][40][41] In several former Eastern Bloc countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary), in which the Candidate of Sciences degrees used to be modeled after the Soviet ones, those degrees have been replaced with Ph.D. or equivalent doctoral degrees, with the recognition of the essential equivalency between the old and the new degrees.[42][43]

The International Standard Classification of Education 2011 (ISCED), identifies Kandidat Nauk as a Candidat of Sciences. It is a level 8 (or “doctoral or equivalent”), which includes PhD, DPhil and D.Lit. It is listed in the Russian version of ISCED 2011, par. 262, on the UNESCO website, as an equivalent of a PhD.

- Doktor Nauk) is given as an example of second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates in ISCED 2011[31] (par.270) and is similar to Habilitation in Germany, Poland and several other countries.[32][44][45] It constitutes a higher qualification compared to PhD as against the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or Dublin Descriptors.[44]

[48]

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The Dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate), abbreviated to “Dott. Ric. Ric.” The standard Ph.D. is completed following the Bologna process. However, the MD/PhD program can be completed in as little as two years.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (Ph.D.) was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name “Diploma di Perfezionamento”.[49][50] Further, the research doctorates or PhD (Italian: Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in 1980,[51][52] referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.[53][54]

Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Grandes ecoles), [55] (Italian : Scuola Superiore Univeritaria),[56] Also known as Schools of Excellence (Italian : Scuole di Ecellenza),[55][57] Still keeping their historical “Diploma di Perfezionamento” PhD title by law [50][58] & MIUR Decee[59][60]

All those who have a ” magistrale” (master’s degree) or an equivalent academic title from another country that has been recognized by the Committee responsible to the entrance examinations as equivalent to an Italian degree are eligible to apply for doctorate courses.

The announcement includes details about the entrance exams and the number of available places each year.

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Doctoral degree in Poland (Pol. Doktor) is also known as PhD (Pol. A doctoral degree (Pol. doktor), also known as a PhD, is an academic degree that can be awarded by universities in all fields. Students with a master’s or equivalent degree are usually eligible to take the doctoral entrance exam. A scientist who has completed at least three years of PhD studies (Pol.) is eligible to be awarded the title of PhD. studia doktoranckie, 2) completed his/her scientific research in the laboratory and/or theoretical areas, 3) passed all PhD examinations, and 4) submitted his/her dissertation – which is a summary of the author’s findings and research. [68] 5) Successfully defended his/her doctoral thesis. Usually, after completing the thesis, the candidate is subject to an oral examination by the supervisory committee who has expertise in the discipline.

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In Sweden, the doctorate was established in 1477, and in Denmark-Norway it was established in 1479. It is awarded in medicine, law, and theology. The magister’s degree, which was equivalent to the doctorate, was the highest degree in Philosophy at the Faculty of Philosophy.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr.Phil(os). In 1824, the Magister’s degree was replaced by the Dr.Phil(os) degree. Uppsala University of Sweden changed the name of its Magister’s Degree Filosofie Doktor (Fil.Dr.). In 1863. In 1863. Denmark introduced an American-style PhD in 1989; it formally replaced the Licentiate degree, and is considered a lower degree than the dr. phil

he PhD is not officially a doctorate

The PhD is not officially a doctorate. However, it is unofficially known as the “smaller doctorate” and is often compared to the dr. phil., or “the grand doctorate”.[70] At the moment, Norway and Denmark both have traditional (higher) doctor. American-style PhDs and degree.

In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University‘s Faculty of Philosophy in 1863. The Latin term is often translated into Swedish filosofie. This degree is the traditional Faculty of Philosophy.

It includes subjects such as biology, physics, and chemistry, but also languages, history, and social sciences. The Licentiate’s level of research in Sweden is now the PhD. It is comparable to the Danish Licentiate’s, but it’s now the PhD. For PhDs in engineering and natural science related subjects, such as computer science or molecular biology etc., some universities in Sweden use the term teknologie Doktor. In relation to teknologie magister being transliterated as Master of Science it would be translated into Doctor of Science. These degrees are often referred to in English as PhDs.

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Royal Decree (R.D.) regulates doctoral degrees. 778/1998), [71] Real Decreto. These diplomas are issued by universities on behalf of the King and have the legal force of public documents. The Ministry of Science maintains a National Registry of Theses (TESEO).[72]

All doctoral programs have a research focus. You will need to complete at least four years of research. This can be divided into two stages.

  1. The 2-year-long study period ends with a public dissertation that is presented to a panel consisting of three professors. If the university approves the project, the student will be awarded a Diploma de Estudios Avanzados, which is a part qualified doctor. Literally, it means “Diploma of Advanced Studies”.
  2. Research for a 2-year period (or more) Extended research may be requested up to 10 years in length. The thesis must be a new discovery or contribution to science. The thesis director will approve the student’s work and then present it to five distinguished scholars. Any doctor who attends the public presentations can ask questions about the research of the candidate. He will be awarded the doctorate if he is approved. Unsatisfactory can be awarded, Pass, Cum laude, and Summa cum laude. The highest mark, “Cum Laude”, is available from 2007 and only applies to candidates who receive the highest score by unanimous consent of all members of the tribunal.

To apply for a teaching position at a university, you will need a doctoral degree.

It is evident that doctors in Spain have a social status which is reflected in the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees, and Dukes are allowed to sit down and cover their heads in front of the King (“Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994 75]).

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See also: Doctorate#United Kingdom

Not all Doctorates can be described as PhDs. The term is often used to refer to all doctorates.

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Admission to PhD programs is determined by the universities. Typically, admissions are conditional upon the student having completed a bachelor’s degree with at least second-class honours or a postgraduate masters degree. However, requirements can vary.

For example, the University of Oxford states that “the only condition for being accepted…is evidence of past academic excellence and of future potential.” [76] Upon satisfactory progress, students may be accepted to the MPhil program. 

This usually happens after one to two years. The research done could count towards the PhD degree. A student may be allowed to submit an MPhil thesis if he or she fails to make satisfactory progress.

Additionally, doctoral students from non-EU/EFTA countries must comply with the Academic Technology Approval Scheme. This requires them to undergo a security clearance process with Foreign Office in order to take certain courses in mathematics and engineering.

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The United Kingdom provides funding for PhD students through government-funded Research Councils and the European Social Fund. This usually comes in the form a tax-free bursary that consists of tuition fees along with a stipend of approximately PS13,000 per annum for three years (higher for London),[79].

Regardless of whether the degree is continued for longer periods. Scientist studentships usually pay a higher rate. For example, in London, Cancer Research UK and the ICR stipend rates begin at around PS19,000 and increase annually to about PS23,000 per year.

This amount is not subject to tax or national insurance. Sometimes, Research Council funding is’earmarked for a specific department or research group. They then allocate it to a selected student. However, they are expected to adhere to the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a second degree with higher second-class honours although the successful completion of a postgraduate Master’s degree is often counted as increasing the class of the first degrees by one division). 

Because funding is available in many disciplines, including humanities, social sciences, and pure science [citation needed], students are not likely to be granted studentships. However, they will receive the best research proposals, references, and backgrounds. 

The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council), clearly states that a minimum of 2.1 (or 2.2 plus an additional masters degree is required) is required. Students with first-class honours or distinction at the masters level are not eligible for additional marks. Research councils have been funding interdisciplinary doctoral training centers that focus resources on higher quality centres. This has been happening since 2002.

Part-time study is an option for students who do not receive external funding. This allows them to save tuition and gives them the opportunity to make money to subsist on their own. Part-time students may be able to tutor, assist with research, or deliver lectures. The hourly rate is typically between PS25-30, depending on whether it is for supplemental income or sole funding.

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The thesis is typically submitted after a 3- or 4-year program. Part-time students usually have these periods extended pro rata. Part-time students can extend the deadline for their thesis by special dispensation. However, this is very rare. British funding councils have been penalizing departments that fail to submit theses within four years of achieving PhD-student status or pro rata equivalent. This has been in place since the 1990s.

Recent increases in the availability of Integrated PhD programs, like at the University of Southampton, have led to an increase in their number. These courses include a Master of Research in the first year. This includes both a laboratory rotation component and a taught component. The PhD must be completed within three years. 

This includes the MRes, so deadlines and timelines have been set to encourage completion of both MRes as well as PhD within four years. These programs are intended to give students a wider range of skills than a standard PhD. They also provide a way for universities to earn an additional year’s fees from public sources.

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The United Kingdom’s PhD degrees are different from other doctorates. These include the higher doctorates D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters), and D.Sc.(Doctor of Science), which can be granted upon recommendation of an examiners based on a substantial portfolio of published (and often submitted) research. Most UK universities allow students to submit a thesis to be awarded a higher degree.

Professional doctorates (D.Prof. or ProfD) have been introduced in recent years. These are equivalent to PhDs, but they combine academic research with a teaching component and a professional qualification. They are found in engineering (Eng.D.), education, educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych), and occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.). 

Clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psych. ), social work, nursing (D.N.P), and public administration (D.P.A. ), and business administration (D.B.A. ), business administration (D.B.A. These usually have a formal taught component that consists of smaller research projects and a thesis component of between 40,000 and 60,000 words, which together is equivalent to a PhD degree.

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Additional information: Doctorate#United States

The Ph.D. degree in the United States is the highest academic degree that universities can award in almost all fields of study. The Ph.D. program in America typically involves three phases. The first phase is coursework in the student’s chosen field. It can take up to three years to complete.

 The preliminary is often followed by a comprehensive examination or a series cumulative examinations that emphasize breadth and not depth. Students are often required to take oral and written examinations in their field of specialization. This emphasizes depth. Some Ph.D. programs require that the candidate complete requirements in pedagogy.

This includes courses on teaching and teaching at a higher level, as well as courses in applied science, such predoctoral internships in Ph.D. programs in school, counseling, and clinical psychology. [citation needed]

Another two to four years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. A dissertation is often composed of a literature review and an outline of methodology.

There may also be chapters that are scientific, literary, philosophical or historical depending on the discipline. Usually, after completing a dissertation, the candidate is subject to an oral examination by a member of his or her supervisory board who has expertise in that discipline.

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There are 282 universities that offer the PhD degree in the United States. The criteria for admission vary based on the university’s admission policies and the fields of study. Many programs at highly-respected research universities might have low acceptance rates. They may require applicants to perform well on the GRE as well as in undergraduate work. [citation needed]

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Many Ph.D. applicants do not need to hold master’s degrees. Instead, programs often award Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees “en route”, in passing, or “in-course” based on graduate work. Students who are awarded such master’s degrees usually have to complete coursework as well as a master’s thesis. Some Ph.D. programs do not require additional work in order to earn a master’s degree. Master’s theses are not required for all Ph.D.

programs. Master’s in-passing degrees may be mandatory or optional depending on the program. If the Master of Arts and Master of Science requirements are not required by the programs, Ph.D. students may choose to skip these requirements. These students will receive the Ph.D. at the conclusion of their graduate studies. [citation needed]

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The length of a PhD program depends on the field of study. It can take four to eight years to complete. Students who have completed a bachelor’s degree in a related field may need to finish the program sooner. Many universities in the United States have established a ten year limit for PhD students.

They also refuse to accept graduate credits older than ten years towards a PhD degree. Students may also be required to take the comprehensive exam again if they fail to defend their dissertations within five year of submitting them to their own dissertation advisors. [88]

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Doctoral students are generally discouraged from working in the outside world during their graduate training. Doctoral students at U.S. Universities typically receive tuition waivers and an annual stipend. [citation needed] Funding sources and amounts vary from one university to the next. Many PhD students in the United States work as research assistants and teaching assistants. 

Graduate schools increasingly[citation needed] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers’ research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Many Ivy League universities and other wealthy institutions provide funding for all or part of the degree program. 

[citation needed] Funding, availability of graduate/teaching assistanceships, tuition waivers and grants, scholarships, etc. will vary greatly based on their classification (see Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education). Doctoral students may not receive funding from smaller private universities that offer doctoral degrees. This is also true for many online doctoral programmes.

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Candidate in Philosophy refers to a certificate or status that a postgraduate student obtains on the way to a doctorate. It can be abbreviated as PhD (cand), Ph.D.c, or simply Ph.C. While postgraduate programs may have different requirements, most require that you complete a doctorate.

Candidacy can be conferred or certified if the student meets specific requirements for a doctorate. This includes the completion of research projects, defense of a dissertation and the submission of a written dissertation. 

Candidacy may not require the completion of research. It depends on the requirements of each program. The term “ABD” or All But Dissertation (or All But Defended) is used to indicate that a candidate must only complete the defense and writing of the dissertation.

Candidacy can sometimes be a benefit in postgraduate studies, even though it is a minor distinction. This could mean a higher student’s stipend or make them eligible for job opportunities. Candidacy does not guarantee these benefits. 

Candidacy for PhD is a benefit that the completion of the doctorate is not necessarily guaranteed, provided the student successfully defends their work. The faculty will not take this lightly, as oral defenses and a written dissertation are not common.

It is important to note that the Candidate of Philosophy should not be confused with Candidate of Sciences. This academic degree has been substituted for a PhD in certain countries.

There are some programs that include a Master of Philosophy degree.[89] This is done after the appropriate MA/MS has been awarded. The degree candidate must have completed all requirements for the PhD degree, which may include language requirements, course credits, teaching experience, comprehensive exams, writing, defense, and editing of the dissertation. 

[citation needed] This is the formalization of the “all but dissertation” status, which some students use informally. It indicates that the student has attained a higher level scholarship than the MA/MS. As such, the MPhil can sometimes be a useful credential for those who are applying for research or teaching positions while working on their PhD dissertation.

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Some universities offer training to those who wish to supervise PhD students. For academics interested in this role, there is a lot of literature available, including Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry (1997). Dinham (2001) and Scott (2001), argue that research student numbers have increased worldwide, and so has the number of “how-to” books for students and their supervisors.

They cite examples like Phillips (1987) and Pugh (1987). The authors present empirical data that shows the benefits a PhDc can reap from publishing work. They also note that PhDcs are more likely do so if they have adequate encouragement from their supervisors.

Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the PhD process.

 Acker, Hill, and Black first distinguished these two models (1994; Wisker 2005). There is a lot of literature on expectations of students by their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh 1987; Wilkinson 2005). Similar expectations can be found in the Quality Assurance Agency’s Code for Supervision, cited in Wilkinson 2005.

International PhD equivalent degreesedit | edit source

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Similar terminology:

  • Doctor of Arts–Preparation for academic position in the arts.
  • Doctor of Education–Preparation for academic, administrative, clinical, or research positions in the field of education.
  • PhD In Management – This program is for students who are interested in becoming business professors at universities.
  • Doctorate–A general term describing a set of degrees analogous to the PhD.
  • Magister (degree),–A degree that is awarded in Argentina or Uruguay.
  • The terminal degree – This is the highest degree in a field, often a PhD.
  • Graduate student – A student who is pursuing higher education beyond the bachelor’s degree.
  • C.Phil. – A term that is usually used unofficially to describe a graduate student who has completed all of his or her PhD coursework, but has not yet submitted his or her dissertation.
  • Kandidat Nauk ( Candidat nauk). – Awarded by the USSR, some post-Soviet countries (e.g. Russia, Ukraine).
  • Doktor Nauk ( Doktor nauk )–Degree granted by the USSR, some post-Soviet countries (e.g. Russia, Ukraine).
  • Licentiate – Degree conferred in many countries including Portugal, Belgium and the UK.
  • Postdoctoral Research
  • Sandwich PhD Programme

Popular culture PhD:

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  1. | History of the Ph.D.. Phdcourse.net. URL accessed on 2011-02-01.
  2. | Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The origins of university education in Europe Cambridge University Press.
  3. | de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde (2003). History of the university in Europe: Universities during the Middle Ages Cambridge University Press.
  4. | Rashdall, Hastings (1964). Universities of Europe in Middle Ages Oxford University Press.
  5. | Ruegg, Walter. A History and the University of Europe: Volume 3, Universities during the Nineteenth, Early Twentieth Centuries (1900-1945). Cambridge University Press.
  6. For instance, see DOI:10.2307/1979947. This citation will automatically be completed within the next few minutes. You have the option to jump the queue, or expand manually
  7. | Science, October 11, 1929, Volume LXX/July-Dec 1929, pg. 337
  8. | The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom. URL accessed on 2011-11-17.
  9. | Simpson, Renate (1984). How did the PhD get to Britain? : A century of struggle for postgraduate education, Taylor and Francis.
  10. | C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in relation to the Pre-History of University of London Med Hist. 1960 January; 4(1), 1-17.
  11. | DOI:10.1080/03098770020030498
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  12. | The term “doctor of philosophy” is not always applied by those countries to graduates in disciplines other than philosophy itself. These doctoral degrees are sometimes called Ph.D. degrees in English.
  13. What is PhDc? The Free Online Dictionary provides abbreviations and acronyms
  14. PhD Categories, Wageningen University. PhD Scholarship Programmes, University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science. Sandwich PhD, Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.
  15. | “Higher education: Agreement reached with Glasgow for ‘sandwich’ PhD (February 11, 2012). Express Tribune.
  16. | Journal of Higher Education Management and Policy, the economic contribution of PhDs, http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a912992314
  17. | Jump up to:17.0 17.1 17.2 includeonly>”Doctoral degrees: The disposable academic”, The Economist. Retrieved 25 Dec 2012.
  18. | DOI:10.1038/nj7343-381a
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  19. DOI:10.1038/472259b
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  20. DOI:10.1038/472261a
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  21. DOI:10.1038/472276a
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  22. | Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011.
  23. | Scholarships in Argentina. Spuweb.siu.edu.ar. URL accessed on 2010-04-28.
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  33. | UNESCO-CEPES. Kouptsov, O., ed. The Europe Region Doctorate. CEPES Studies in Higher Education. Bucharest: UNESCO, CEPES, 1994, p. 199, ISBN 92-9069-133-6, http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/24_245.pdf
  34. | Gemeinsame Erklarungzur gegenseitigen akademischen Anerkennungvon tudienzeiten und Abschlussen im Hochschulbereichsowie von Urkunden uber russische wissenschaftliche Gradeund deutsche akademische Qualifikationen zwischen HRK/ KMK und dem Ministerium fur Allgemeine und Berufliche Bildungder Russischen Foderation 1999, http://www.hrk-bologna.de/de/download/dateien/HRK_Abkommen_Russland.pdf
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  36. | Decret ndeg 2003-744 du 1er aout 2003 portant publication de l’accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et le Gouvernement de la Federation de Russie sur la reconnaissance mutuelle des documents sur les grades et titres universitaires, signe a Saint-Petersbourg le 12 mai 2003, http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000780537
  37. | Soglashenie mezhdu Pravitel’stvom Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Pravitel’stvom Frantsuzskoi Respubliki o vzaimnom priznanii dokumentov ob uchenykh stepeniakh, Sankt-Peterburg, 12 maia 2003 goda, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/soglash/2538/
  38. | Postanova Kabinetu Ministriv Ukrayini vid 17 bereznia 1993 r. N 199 Pro zatverdzhennia opisiv diplomiv doktora i kandidata nauk ta atestata starshogo naukovogo spivrobitnika i pereliku galuzei nauki, z iakikh mozhe buti prisudzhenii naukovii stupin’, http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/199-93-%D0%BF
  39. | Prezidiia VAK Ukrayini. Dodatok do diploma kandidata nauk // Biuleten’ VAK Ukrayini. 2004. – No. 1. S. 12, http://www.vak.org.ua/docs/diploma/supplement.pdf
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  41. | Jump up to:41.0 41.1 Luchuk O. Koli mi dizhdemosia Vashing’tona? Todi zh i stanem “doktorami”! Do pitannia pro akademichni posadi, naukovi stupeni ta vcheni zvannia v ukrayins’komu ta amerikans’komu naukovikh diskursakh // Ukrayina: kul’turna spadshchina, natsional’na svidomist’, derzhavnist’: Zbirnik naukovikh prats’. Vipusk 21. – L’viv: Institut ukrayinoznavstva im. I.Krip’iakevicha NAN Ukrayini, 2012, http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/Uks/2012_21/40LuchukO.pdf
  42. Jump up to:42.0 42.1 Cesky Candidate of Sciences – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org. URL accessed on 2013-07-02.
  43. | Helsinki Group on Women and Science. Hrubos I. Hungarian National Report Women and Science – Review of the Situation in Hungary November 15, 2000, http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/pdf/women_national_report_hungary.pdf
  44. Jump up to:44.0 44.1% 44.2 Technopolis Group GHK. Learn about the organization of doctoral programs in EU neighboring countries. Russian Federation. December 2010, http://ec.europa.eu/education/external-relation-programmes/doc/doctoral/russia_en.pdf
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  46. | Statistika Rossiiskogo obrazovaniia
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  48. | http://www.careerrussia.ru/detail_new.php?ID=5925 Molodomu spetsialistu na zametku: obrazovanie/aspirantura
  49. | Student Guidebook – Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
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  • Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). The Guide to Success in Supervising the Ph.D. Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-19516-4
  • Dinham, S. and Scott, C. (2001). Disseminating doctoral research results: The experiences. Journal of Further and Higher Education 25(1) 45-55. ISSN: 1469-99486
  • Drury, V., Francis, K., & Chapman, Y. (2006). Walking the Void – Being a rural PhD student. Australian Journal of Rural Health 14, p233.
  • MacGillivray Alex; Potts Gareth; Raymond Polly. Secrets to Their Success (London, New Economics Foundation 2002).
  • Phillips, E. & Pugh D.S. (1987). How to get a PhD: managing the peaks & troughs in research / Estelle Phillips and D.S. Pugh. Milton Keynes: Open University Press ISBN #0-335-15537-5
  • Simpson, Renate. How the PhD came into Britain: A century of struggle for higher education Society for Research into Higher Education Guildford (1983).
  • Wellington, J. Bathmaker A._M. Hunt, C. McCullough G. & Sikes P. (2005) Your doctorate is a success. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-0116-2
  • Wilkinson D. (2005). The essential guide for postgraduate studies. London : SAGE ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
  • Wisker G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Undergraduate and Postgraduate Research for Doctoral Theses. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.

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The thesis is typically submitted after a 3- or 4-year program. Part-time students usually have these periods extended pro rata. Part-time students can extend the deadline for their thesis by special dispensation. However, this is very rare. 

British funding councils have been penalizing departments that fail to submit theses within four years of achieving PhD-student status or pro rata equivalent. This has been in place since the 1990s.

Recent increases in the availability of Integrated PhD programs, like at the University of Southampton, have led to an increase in their number. These courses include a Master of Research in the first year. This includes both a laboratory rotation component and a taught component. The PhD must be completed within three years. 

This includes the MRes, so deadlines and timelines have been set to encourage completion of both MRes as well as PhD within four years. These programs are intended to give students a wider range of skills than a standard PhD. They also provide a way for universities to earn an additional year’s fees from public sources.

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The United Kingdom’s PhD degrees are different from other doctorates. These include the higher doctorates D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters), and D.Sc.(Doctor of Science), which can be granted upon recommendation of an examiners based on a substantial portfolio of published (and often submitted) research. Most UK universities allow students to submit a thesis to be awarded a higher degree.

Professional doctorates (D.Prof. or ProfD) have been introduced in recent years. These are equivalent to PhDs, but they combine academic research with a teaching component and a professional qualification.

 They are found in engineering (Eng.D.), education, educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych), and occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.). Clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psych. ), social work, nursing (D.N.P), and public administration (D.P.A. ), and business administration (D.B.A. ), business administration (D.B.A. These usually have a formal taught component that consists of smaller research projects and a thesis component of between 40,000 and 60,000 words, which together is equivalent to a PhD degree.

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Additional information: Doctorate#United States

The Ph.D. degree in the United States is the highest academic degree that universities can award in almost all fields of study. The Ph.D. program in America typically involves three phases. The first phase is coursework in the student’s chosen field. It can take up to three years to complete. The preliminary is often followed by a comprehensive examination or a series cumulative examinations that emphasize breadth and not depth. 

Students are often required to take oral and written examinations in their field of specialization. This emphasizes depth. Some Ph.D. programs require that the candidate complete requirements in pedagogy. This includes courses on teaching and teaching at a higher level, as well as courses in applied science, such predoctoral internships in Ph.D. programs in school, counseling, and clinical psychology. [citation needed]

Another two to four years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. A dissertation is often composed of a literature review and an outline of methodology.

There may also be chapters that are scientific, literary, philosophical or historical depending on the discipline. Usually, after completing a dissertation, the candidate is subject to an oral examination by a member of his or her supervisory board who has expertise in that discipline.

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There are 282 universities that offer the PhD degree in the United States. The criteria for admission vary based on the university’s admission policies and the fields of study. Many programs at highly-respected research universities might have low acceptance rates. They may require applicants to perform well on the GRE as well as in undergraduate work. [citation needed]

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Many Ph.D. applicants do not need to hold master’s degrees. Instead, programs often award Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees “en route”, in passing, or “in-course” based on graduate work. Students who are awarded such master’s degrees usually have to complete coursework as well as a master’s thesis. Some Ph.D. programs do not require additional work in order to earn a master’s degree. Master’s theses are not required for all Ph.D.

programs. Master’s in-passing degrees may be mandatory or optional depending on the program. If the Master of Arts and Master of Science requirements are not required by the programs, Ph.D. students may choose to skip these requirements. These students will receive the Ph.D. at the conclusion of their graduate studies. [citation needed]

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The length of a PhD program depends on the field of study. It can take four to eight years to complete. Students who have completed a bachelor’s degree in a related field may need to finish the program sooner. Many universities in the United States have established a ten year limit for PhD students.

They also refuse to accept graduate credits older than ten years towards a PhD degree. Students may also be required to take the comprehensive exam again if they fail to defend their dissertations within five year of submitting them to their own dissertation advisors. [88]

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Doctoral students are generally discouraged from working in the outside world during their graduate training. Doctoral students at U.S. Universities typically receive tuition waivers and an annual stipend. [citation needed] Funding sources and amounts vary from one university to the next. Many PhD students in the United States work as research assistants and teaching assistants. Graduate schools increasingly[citation needed] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers’ research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. 

Many Ivy League universities and other wealthy institutions provide funding for all or part of the degree program. [citation needed] Funding, availability of graduate/teaching assistanceships, tuition waivers and grants, scholarships, etc. will vary greatly based on their classification (see Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education). Doctoral students may not receive funding from smaller private universities that offer doctoral degrees. This is also true for many online doctoral programmes.

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Candidate in Philosophy refers to a certificate or status that a postgraduate student obtains on the way to a doctorate. It can be abbreviated as PhD (cand), Ph.D.c, or simply Ph.C. While postgraduate programs may have different requirements, most require that you complete a doctorate.

Candidacy can be conferred or certified if the student meets specific requirements for a doctorate. This includes the completion of research projects, defense of a dissertation and the submission of a written dissertation. 

Candidacy may not require the completion of research. It depends on the requirements of each program. The term “ABD” or All But Dissertation (or All But Defended) is used to indicate that a candidate must only complete the defense and writing of the dissertation.

Candidacy can sometimes be a benefit in postgraduate studies, even though it is a minor distinction. 

This could mean a higher student’s stipend or make them eligible for job opportunities. Candidacy does not guarantee these benefits.

Candidacy can sometimes be a benefit in postgraduate studies, even though it is a minor distinction. This could mean a higher student’s stipend or make them eligible for job opportunities. Candidacy does not guarantee these benefits.

 Candidacy for PhD is a benefit that the completion of the doctorate is not necessarily guaranteed, provided the student successfully defends their work. The faculty will not take this lightly, as oral defenses and a written dissertation are not common.

It is important to note that the Candidate of Philosophy should not be confused with Candidate of Sciences. This academic degree has been substituted for a PhD in certain countries.

There are some programs that include a Master of Philosophy degree.[89] This is done after the appropriate MA/MS has been awarded. The degree candidate must have completed all requirements for the PhD degree, which may include language requirements, course credits, teaching experience, comprehensive exams, writing, defense, and editing of the dissertation.

 [citation needed] This is the formalization of the “all but dissertation” status, which some students use informally. It indicates that the student has attained a higher level scholarship than the MA/MS. As such, the MPhil can sometimes be a useful credential for those who are applying for research or teaching positions while working on their PhD dissertation.

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Some universities offer training to those who wish to supervise PhD students. For academics interested in this role, there is a lot of literature available, including Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry (1997). Dinham (2001) and Scott (2001), argue that research student numbers have increased worldwide, and so has the number of “how-to” books for students and their supervisors. They cite examples like Phillips (1987) and Pugh (1987). 

The authors present empirical data that shows the benefits a PhDc can reap from publishing work. They also note that PhDcs are more likely do so if they have adequate encouragement from their supervisors.

Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision: The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the PhD process.

 Acker, Hill, and Black first distinguished these two models (1994; Wisker 2005). There is a lot of literature on expectations of students by their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh 1987; Wilkinson 2005). Similar expectations can be found in the Quality Assurance Agency’s Code for Supervision, cited in Wilkinson 2005.

International PhD equivalent degreesedit | edit source

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Similar terminology:

  • Doctor of Arts–Preparation for academic position in the arts.
  • Doctor of Education–Preparation for academic, administrative, clinical, or research positions in the field of education.
  • PhD In Management – This program is for students who are interested in becoming business professors at universities.
  • Doctorate–A general term describing a set of degrees analogous to the PhD.
  • Magister (degree),–A degree that is awarded in Argentina or Uruguay.
  • The terminal degree – This is the highest degree in a field, often a PhD.
  • Graduate student – A student who is pursuing higher education beyond the bachelor’s degree.
  • C.Phil. – A term that is usually used unofficially to describe a graduate student who has completed all of his or her PhD coursework, but has not yet submitted his or her dissertation.
  • Kandidat Nauk ( Candidat nauk). – Awarded by the USSR, some post-Soviet countries (e.g. Russia, Ukraine).
  • Doktor Nauk ( Doktor nauk )–Degree granted by the USSR, some post-Soviet countries (e.g. Russia, Ukraine).
  • Licentiate – Degree conferred in many countries including Portugal, Belgium and the UK.
  • Postdoctoral Research
  • Sandwich PhD Programme

Popular culture PhD:

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  5. | Ruegg, Walter. A History and the University of Europe: Volume 3, Universities during the Nineteenth, Early Twentieth Centuries (1900-1945). Cambridge University Press.
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  7. | Science, October 11, 1929, Volume LXX/July-Dec 1929, pg. 337
  8. | The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom. URL accessed on 2011-11-17.
  9. | Simpson, Renate (1984). How did the PhD get to Britain? : A century of struggle for postgraduate education, Taylor and Francis.
  10. | C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in relation to the Pre-History of University of London Med Hist. 1960 January; 4(1), 1-17.
  11. | DOI:10.1080/03098770020030498
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  12. | The term “doctor of philosophy” is not always applied by those countries to graduates in disciplines other than philosophy itself. These doctoral degrees are sometimes called Ph.D. degrees in English.
  13. What is PhDc? The Free Online Dictionary provides abbreviations and acronyms
  14. PhD Categories, Wageningen University. PhD Scholarship Programmes, University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science. Sandwich PhD, Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.
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  21. DOI:10.1038/472276a
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  22. | Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011.
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  • Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). The Guide to Success in Supervising the Ph.D. Buckingham: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-19516-4
  • Dinham, S. and Scott, C. (2001). Disseminating doctoral research results: The experiences. Journal of Further and Higher Education 25(1) 45-55. ISSN: 1469-99486
  • Drury, V., Francis, K., & Chapman, Y. (2006). Walking the Void – Being a rural PhD student. Australian Journal of Rural Health 14, p233.
  • MacGillivray Alex; Potts Gareth; Raymond Polly. Secrets to Their Success (London, New Economics Foundation 2002).
  • Phillips, E. & Pugh D.S. (1987). How to get a PhD: managing the peaks & troughs in research / Estelle Phillips and D.S. Pugh. Milton Keynes: Open University Press ISBN #0-335-15537-5
  • Simpson, Renate. How the PhD came into Britain: A century of struggle for higher education Society for Research into Higher Education Guildford (1983).
  • Wellington, J. Bathmaker A._M. Hunt, C. McCullough G. & Sikes P. (2005) Your doctorate is a success. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-0116-2
  • Wilkinson D. (2005). The essential guide for postgraduate studies. London : SAGE ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
  • Wisker G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Undergraduate and Postgraduate Research for Doctoral Theses. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.

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