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Manusmriti Original – The Laws of Manu

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Manusmriti Laws of Manu

Original Manusmriti PDF

Manusmriti (also spelled Manusmruti) is an ancient Hindu legal text. It was the first Sanskrit text to be translated into English by Sir William Jones in 1794. The British colonial government used it to create the Hindu law. You can download Manusmriti The Laws of Manu as a pdf file or online for free.

Manusmriti, which is often translated as “code of Manu”, actually means “reflections on Manu”. It is a document that organizes the code of conduct for human societies.

It was created around 1,800 years ago. This is the time when yagna-based Vedic Hinduism became temple-based Puranic Hinduism.

Many people believe Mansumriti is the law book of Hindus. It’s similar to the Sharia for Muslims or the Church Dogma, for Catholic Christians, or even the Constitution of India. It’s not.

Manusmriti, or code of conduct, is created by brahmins. It is intended primarily for brahmins but may also be useful for other “upper” caste groups, such as the king. It is one of the dharmashastras, a group of documents.

Unlike Vedas, which are called shruti, that which is heard, and considered timeless divine revelations, Manusmriti or Manava-dharma-shastra, is a smriti (that which is recollected): the work of man, subject to change with time (kala), place (sthan) and participants (patra).

Hindus believe that life is meaningful when we pursue four goals simultaneously (purusha-artha). They are to be socially responsible (dharma), create and distribute wealth (artha), enjoy pleasure (kama), and not get attached to any object (moksha).

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Manusmriti was never dogma for all Hindus, but a code for brahmins.Photo by Reuters

Shastra is the term for knowledge related to each one of these pursuits, when it’s organized. We have artha, dharma, kama, moksha, and moksha–shastra.

These shastras were compiled by brahmins around the time of the Mauryan Emperors. They were initially written in prose. To aid memory, sentences were brief and terse. These were the sutras. Later, poetry (shloka) replaced prose.

Baudhayana, Gautama and Apasthambha compiled the earliest Dharma-shastras. Chanakya compiled artha-shastras. Vatsyayana compiled kama-shastra. Various philosophers, including Patanjali, Badarayana, compiled various types of moksha–shastras, such as yoga or vedanta.

The word “compiled” is important because these scholars recognized that they were part of an older and larger tradition and that their knowledge was derived from outside sources, such as the Vedas.

Manusmriti was written around 200 CE (Common Era). This is because Saka (North West tribes), and Cheen (China), who made contact with India at this time, are known to have written it.

It also refers gold coins that were first used in this time period, according to archaeological evidence. It is also mentioned in texts written around this time, such as the Kamasutra.

Manusmriti stands out among dharma-shastras because it is a unique text. It presents itself as a holy text.

Manusmriti’s origin is believed to be Brahma, the creator. He passed it on first to Manu, who then passed it on first to Bhrigu, who in turn passed it on on to other teachers. Manusmriti, since its creation, was regarded as the most important dharma-shastra and was considered to be superior to all other legal books.

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Manusmriti is the code book used by most commentaries on dharmashastras. It is traced back both to the Vedas and to the customs, practices and beliefs of those who have studied the Vedas.

Manusmriti is in line with the Vedic view of society as four types of people. These are those who know the Vedas, those who govern the land (kshatriyas), traders (vaishyas), and those who serve (shudra). Typically, dharma–shastras attach more importance to the code for brahmins that to the code for kshatriyas. Artha-shastra explains statecraft. Manusmriti, however, gives the code for brahmins almost the same value as the code for kshatriyas. This effectively makes artha-shastra a part dharma–shastra. While earlier dharmashastras were primarily concerned with regulating the conduct of brahmins, Mansmriti also has an interest in regulating the conduct of kshatriyas.

There are nearly 2,500 verses. More than 1,000 are for brahmins. Over a thousand for monarchs, statecraft, governance, and only eight verses for vaishyas. The focus is clearly not on the whole society but only the brahmins and their relationship to the kings.

Despite the rise of Jainism and Buddhism, this strategy was a success story for brahmins. This trend remained constant even in the Mughal era and continued to this day, including during the British Raj and post Independence.

Manusmriti was one dharmashastra. It was less in use as India became more governed by Muslim rulers such as the Deccan and Bengal Sultans. The British East India Company compiled laws to manage their subjects when they took over India’s governance from the Mughals.

They accepted Sharia for Muslims, but they did not accept Sharia for Hindus. They revived Manusmriti, converting it to the Hindu law book. This was not its intent. Manusmriti became famous all over the globe because of this. The status of women in India and their castes was not fixed until then. It varied depending on the region. The British changed it. This fixation of India’s fluid traditions ultimately led to the British’s “divide and Rule” policy and “vote bank” politics after Independence.

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Many Europeans celebrated Manu as an affirmation of life in the 19th Century. They also saw Manu opposing the world’s denial of monastic Buddha. Manu was also popularized in Europe in the 19th century as a noble sage. Manusmriti was recommended reading for educated people in the 19th Century.

Things had changed in the 20th century. Caste became a major political issue. Manu was seen to have institutionalized the caste system and Buddha as having rejected them. Manusmriti was seen as the cause of India’s inequalities, leading to numerous acts of public burning of books.

Manusmriti was written in a time when caste groups were becoming more endogamous and strict rules against intercaste marriages (even today, less than 10% of Indian marriages are inter-caste). Caste, which was an institution that prohibited inter-caste marriages, was quite rigid around 2,000 years ago. This was not due to the Manusmriti.

Manusmriti wasn’t the source of what it is accused of. It was simply documenting a social practice that was already common. It wasn’t a code of conduct for brahmins; it was not dogma for all Hindus. It is possible that it would have been lost in libraries or forgotten entirely if the British had not revived it to aid them in their colony.

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