JIO Full Form in Hindi| Approval and eligibility

Jio ka फुल फॉर्म Joint Implementation Opportunities hota है. इसको हिंदी में संयुक्त कार्यान्वयन अवसर कहते है 

Joint implementation

Article 6 of Kyoto Protocol defines “joint execution” as a mechanism that allows countries with emission reduction or limitation obligations under the Kyoto Protocol to obtain emission reduction units (ERUs), each equivalent to one-tonne of CO2, from an emission-reduction project in another Annex B Party. These ERUs can then be used to count towards achieving their Kyoto target.

Joint implementation allows Parties to meet a portion of their Kyoto commitments in a cost-effective and flexible manner, while benefiting from technology transfer and foreign investment.

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A JI project must result in a reduction of emissions from sources or an increase in removals by sinks that is greater than what would otherwise be possible. The host Party must approve the project and all participants must be authorized by the Party that is involved in it.

If they meet the requirements, projects that began in 2000 could be considered JI projects. However, ERUs can only be issued for crediting periods beginning after 2008.

Track 1 and Track 2.

If a host Party meets all of the eligibility requirements to transfer and/or acquire ERUs, it may verify emission reductions or enhancements of removals from a JI project as being additional to any that would otherwise occur. The appropriate number of ERUs may be issued by the host Party after such verification. This is often referred to by the Track 1 procedure.

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If a host Party does not meet all, but only a limited set of eligibility requirements, verification of emission reductions or enhancements of removals as being additional has to be done through the verification procedure under the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC). This Track 2 procedure requires that an independent entity, accredited by the JISC, determines whether the host Party has met the required requirements before it can issue or transfer ERUs.

Any host Party that meets all eligibility requirements can at any moment choose to use the JISC Track 2 verification procedure.

Robert Bruce Hey, in Performance Management for the Oil, Gas, and Process Industries, 2017

Mechanisms for Meeting Emission Reduction Targets

The Kyoto Protocol offers three market-based mechanisms that will help countries, and in turn local businesses, and entities, meet their emission reduction targets.

Joint Implementation

Under Joint Implementation (JI), a developed country with a relatively high cost of domestic GHG reduction can set up a project in another developed country that has relatively low cost and earn carbon credits that may be applied to their emission targets.

Clean Development Mechanism

Under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a developed country can take up a GHG reduction project activity in a developing country where the cost of GHG reduction is usually much lower and the developed country would then be given carbon credit for meeting its emission reduction targets.

A GHG reduction project can be set up by entities in developing or least developed countries. UNFCCC will approve it and they will issue carbon credits. These carbon credits can be purchased by entities from developed countries that have emission reduction targets.

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International Emission Trading

International Emission Trading (IET) allows developed countries to trade on the international carbon credit marketplace. This means that countries with high emission levels can purchase carbon credits from those with lower emissions. Carbon credits can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold on the international market at the prevailing market prices. IET serves both the needs of developed countries that have emission reduction targets and those who are buyers. It also serves the interests of developing and less developed countries who are sellers of carbon credit.

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6.4 Carbon Policies: Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol

Russia ratified and agreed to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Russia is one of the UNFCCC’s Annex I Parties and therefore has to limit its GHG emissions. Russia pledged to stabilize its emissions at 1990 levels. Russia’s commitment to stabilizing Soviet emissions levels after the fall of the Soviet Union resulted in a surplus of emission allowances.

Russia, as an Annex I Party may host JI projects that are executed in conjunction with other Annex I Parties. Russia has made the necessary steps to comply with the “Track 1” procedure for JI projects. This is a national JI approval, which is different from international approval (Gutbrod et al. 2010). Russia is also the second-largest generator of Emission Reduction Units. After a lengthy and contentious process, Russia ratified Kyoto Protocol on November 4, 2004. It also calculated its allocated amount in 2007. It also established a GHG inventory in 2007 and a national registry. Russia submits an annual report to the UNFCCC Secretariat on its inventory, and the calculation of its allocated amount (UNFCCC 2010). Russia also adopted, after a long delay (Firsova & Taplin, 2008), a national regulation to implement JI projects – despite repeated amendments by the Government.

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Sberbank–the entity in charge with the JI qualification procedure–has approved different projects in the electricity and heating sector, including the construction of new combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) installations, the modernization of hydropower plants and coal/diesel-to-biomass biomass fuel switch for heat production (Sberbank, 2012). These financing options are not applicable to the modernization and expansion of Russia’s energy infrastructure. The Kyoto Protocol’s first commitment period expires in 2012, and Russia expressed opposition to any new commitments made during international climate negotiations in Durban (Table 16).

Table 16.2. Table 16.2.

EventYearComment
Federal Law on the Ratification and Implementation of the UNFCCC1994Russia is now UNFCCC Annex 1 country
Federal Law on the Ratification and Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol2004Russia pledges to stabilize its emissions at 1990 level
Government Decree on Procedure for Approval and Verification Of The Realization of JI Projects2007First JI-qualification procedure
Federal Law No. Federal Law No. 250-FZ Amending Federal Electricity Law2007The legal basis for the Renewable Energy Premium Scheme
Government Decree on Implementation Measures of Article 6 of The Kyoto Protocol2009Second JI procedure to repeal the first
Federal Law No. Federal Law No. 261-FZ Energy Efficiency2009Energy saving measures legal basis
Resolution of the President on Climate Doctrine20092020 GHG reductions of 25% in comparison to 1990
Federal Heat Law No. Federal Heat Law No.2010Legal basis for CHP priority development and new tariff methodology
Government Decree on Implementation Measures of Article 6 of The Kyoto Protocol2011Third JI procedure to repeal the second
Federal Law No. Federal Law No.2011Introduce a capacity-based scheme to generate renewable energy
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