|Category||:||Computing » Protocols|
Internet Protocol (IP), is a communication protocol that allows data to be exchanged between computers on the Internet.
What is the Internet Protocol (IP).
The Internet Protocol (IP), a protocol or set of (IP FLL FORM)rules for routing and addressing data packets, is used to ensure that data can travel across networks to reach the destination they are intended.
Each device and domain that connects with the Internet has an IP address. Data arrives at the destination it needs as packets are directed towards the IP address.
The transport protocols used with IP are combined to handle the packets once they reach their destination. TCP and UDP are the most popular transport protocols.
What is a network protocol and how does it work?
A protocol in networking is a standard way to do certain actions or format data so that devices can communicate with each other.
Consider the process of sending a letter. This will help you understand why protocols are important. Addresses are listed on the envelope in the following order: street address, name, zip code, state, city and zip code.
The post office will not deliver an envelope if it is dropped in a mailbox without the zip code, street address, state, and then the city. To ensure that the postal system works, there is a standard protocol for writing addresses. All IP data packets must contain certain information, and IP addresses must follow a standard format.
What is an IP address? What is IP addressing?
An IP address refers to an unique identifier that is assigned to any device or domain that connects with the Internet.
An IP address is a sequence of characters. For example, 192.168.1.1. Via DNS resolvers, which translate human-readable domain names into IP addresses, users are able to access websites without memorizing this complex series of characters.
Every IP packet will contain the IP address for the device or domain that sent the packet, as well as the IP address for the intended recipient. This is similar to how a piece mail contains both the destination and return addresses.
In 1983, the fourth version of IP (IPv4) was released. The supply of IPv4 addresses is now depleted, just like there are limited permutations for car license plates numbers, which must be reformatted regularly.
What is an IP packet?(IP FLL FORM)
IP packets can be created by adding an IP header before each packet of data is sent. An IP header is a sequence of bits (ones or zeros) that records information about the packet. This includes the sending and receiving IP addresses. The following information is also reported by IP headers:
- Header length
- Packet length
- Time To Live (TTL), or the number of network hops a packet can make before it is discarded
- Which transport protocol (TCP, UDP etc.) is being used?
There are 14 fields in IPv4 headers that can be used to collect information, but one field is optional.
What is IP routing?
The Internet is made up of interconnected large networks that are each responsible for certain blocks of IP addresses; these large networks are known as autonomous systems (AS).
A variety of routing protocols, including BGP, help route packets across ASes based on their destination IP addresses. Routers use routing tables to indicate which ASes packets should travel through to reach their destination.
The packets travel from AS-to AS until they reach the AS that claims responsibility for their targeted IP address. The AS routes the packets internally to the destination.
Protocols attach packet headers to different layers of an OSI model.
If necessary, different routes can be taken by different packs to reach the same destination. The same goes for groups of people driving to a agreed-upon destination.
What is TCP/IP?
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), also known as a transport protocol, is what dictates how data is sent and received. A TCP header is included in the data portion of each packet that uses TCP/IP.
TCP establishes a connection before transmitting data. TCP makes sure that all packets arrive in the correct order after transmission starts. TCP allows the recipient to acknowledge receipt of each packet. If the recipient does not acknowledge receipt, any missing packets will be sent back.
TCP is not designed to speed up, but for reliability. Because TCP must ensure that all packets arrive in the correct order, TCP/IP loading data can take longer if there are any missing packets.
TCP and IP were intended to be used together in the original design. These are commonly referred to as TCP/IP. Other transport protocols can also be used in conjunction with IP.
What is UDP/IP?
The User Datagram Protocol, or UDP, is another widely used transport protocol. Although it’s faster than TCP, it is less reliable. UDP doesn’t make sure that all packets are delivered in the correct order and doesn’t establish a connection prior to beginning or receiving transmissions.
Protocols for IP networks
IP is a non-connectionless protocol. This means there is no ongoing connection between the points that are communicating.
Every packet that traverses the internet is considered an individual unit of data and has no relation to any other units of data. TCP is the connection-oriented protocol that tracks the packet sequence within a message. This is why the packets are reassembled in their correct order.
In the OSI model (Open Systems Interconnection), IP is in layer 3, the networking layer.
There are many network protocols that can be used on top of IP.
- TCPTransmission Control Protocol allows data to flow across IP addresses.
- UDP.User Datagram Protocol is a protocol that allows low-latency communication to be transferred. It is widely used online.DNSVoice and lookup over Internet Protocol
- FTP.File Transfer Protocol is a specification for accessing, managing and copying files between connected IP hosts.
- HTTP.Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the specification that allows the modern web to function. HTTP allows websites and web browsers access to content. It usually runs on port 80.
- HTTPS.Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTP) is HTTP that uses encryption via Secure Sockets Layer and Transport Layer Security. HTTPS is typically served via port 443.