ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.
There is no one universal definition of ICT. However, it is commonly accepted that the term refers to all devices, networking components and applications that allow people and organisations (i.e. businesses, non-profit agencies, governments, and criminal enterprises) access to the digital world.
ICT encompasses both the internet-enabled sphere as well as the mobile one powered by wireless networks. It also includes obsolete technologies such as radio broadcast, landline telephones and radio — all of which are still used in conjunction with cutting-edge ICT pieces like artificial intelligence and robotics.
Sometimes ICT is used interchangeably with IT (for information tech); however, ICT is more commonly used to refer to all components of computer and digital technology than IT.
It is impossible to list all the ICT components, and it keeps growing. Some components, like computers and telephones have been around for decades. Some components, like computers and telephones, have been around for decades. Others, like smartphones, digital TVs, and robots are newer.
ICT often refers to more than just its components. It includes the application of all these components. This is where the true potential, power, and danger of ICT are found.
ICT is leveraged for economic, societal and interpersonal transactions and interactions. The ICT revolution has radically changed the way people communicate, learn, and work. ICT has continued to revolutionize every aspect of human life.
First computers, and now robots, can perform many of the tasks previously performed by humans. Computers used to answer phones and direct calls to the right people. Robots can now not only answer calls but can also handle calls more efficiently and quickly.
The importance of ICT to economic development has been so significant that many consider it the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Broad shifts in society are also supported by ICT. Individuals are shifting from face-to-face interaction to digital interactions. This new era is frequently termed the Digital.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), is a broad term that refers to Information Technology (IT). It includes all communication technologies such as the internet, wireless networks, cell phone computers, software, middleware and video-conferencing.
These applications and services allow users to access, retrieve and store information, transmit it, and manipulate it digitally.
The convergence of media technology, such as audio-visual or telephone networks with computer networks by way of a unified cabling system (including signal distribution management and management), is also known as ICTs.
There is no one universal definition of ICTs, as the tools, concepts and methods involved in ICTs continue to evolve on a daily basis.
The IEEE Computer Society adopted the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA) to define professional skills levels for ICT professional education products. The value of ICT strategies as a means of bridging the digital divide and as a powerful tool for economic and social development around the world should not be underestimated in agricultural and related sectors.
The extension of ICT services would improve the ability of farmers to access global open data about agriculture and nutrition, allowing for the development of sensible solutions that address food security, nutrition, and sustainable agriculture issues.
ICTs have enabled “different types of innovation to take place in the agricultural sector. These include commodity and stock price information and analysis as well as advisory services to farmers for agricultural extension and early warning systems for disaster prevention.
Financial services, traceability and data gathering for agricultural statistics, and financial services. (ICT for sustainable agriculture, FAO, 2013).
The FAO launched the organization in 2007 with a group founding partners. e-Agriculture Community of PracticeAn online forum to exchange knowledge and experience about projects involving ICTs in agriculture and rural developmente-Agriculture 10 Year Review Report. Implementation of 2015’s World Summit on Information Society/WSIS).
The 2016 ‘E-Agriculture Strategy Guide: Piloted In Asia-Pacific Countries’ was published by the FAO and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
This toolkit provides countries with a framework to develop their national e-agriculture strategies, which should help rationalize both financial and human resources, as well as address ICT opportunities for the agricultural sector in a more efficient manner.
On this page (e-Agriculture) you will find all information related to the use of the ‘E-Agriculture Strategy Guide’, the related workshops organized, and the progress made in different countries.
Information and communication technology (ICT), engineers create and maintain a virtual world that offers new services and applications that can be used to benefit people in both their work and daily lives. However, ICT engineers are often constrained by the inherent hardware performance of computers, storage systems, or communication systems in order to develop projects.
It is crucial to monitor and measure the physical ICT system performance to ensure that ICT-based services work as expected. This includes the CPU load, available memory, bandwidth and other hardware parameters. Moore’s law, which states that the number transistors on a chip will tend to double every 18 month, has allowed for a rapid increase in digital system performance.
These technical performances don’t provide any direct information about quality of services offered. In the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication (ITU-T) standardization sector’s E.800 recommendation (ITU-E800, 1994), quality of service (QoS) is defined as “the collective effect of service performances, which determine the degree of satisfaction of a user of the service.”
The satisfaction of users is then the key of ICT business and must be specified in a service-level agreement (SLA) signed by ICT experts and their customers. SLA, by definition, is not technical and must be understood by all parties who may not be familiar with ICT terms.
Two main issues should be considered during the SLA specification. One is the identification of the relationships between performance indicators as defined by user applications and ICT technical performances. The other concern the monitoring of these indicators in order to ensure that the contract is being fulfilled.
Translation between ICT and user’s application performance covers many kinds of problems. The translation can be direct such as having the application response time correspond to the time for ICT experts to process and transport the applicative request. The main challenge in this situation is to clearly define the context, such as the number of users and opening hours, and to identify the type of delay (worst, average, confidence interval etc.).
The translation process can become more complicated if the requirements of the user are not expressed in professional terms. The stability of an industrial process’ behavior around a target point is one way to assess its control. In the research on networked control systems, the identification of impact of ICT performances (and especially network) on industrial process stability requires complex preliminary studies and development of new approaches (Vatanski et al., 2009).
Another barrier to the definition of a SLA is the specification by the user of their requirements using qualitative and not quantitative information. It is difficult to assess and associate subjective perceptions with ICT parameters such as delay, jitter, and quality of phone calls, TV broadcasts, web sites, etc.
The user’s perception of quality is usually transformed into a metric using a mean opinion score. This scale ranges from 0 (no service), to 5 (perfect service). This guideline will be used by ICT professionals when designing their technical configurations.
To identify the boundary between ICT systems and applications, it is important to monitor the indicators in SLA. It is important to identify and understand the causes of malfunctions, and to determine who the stakeholders are responsible.
To detect, anticipate and recover from faults, ICT systems need to be continuously monitored in order to monitor their performance. You can use models, measures, or a combination thereof to assess ICT performance.
The measurement needs probes, a monitoring device, and protocols that allow for access to all metrics. A management information base (MIB), which is usually implemented for every piece of equipment (computers, printers, switches, routers, etc.)
supports all equipment properties in a standardized hierarchical structure (name, OS version, storage capacities and bandwidth). Monitoring systems such as Centreon, Nagios and Centreon can then be used to monitor the equipment.
can then collect or modify the information stored in MIB by using simple network management protocol (SNMP). Although this approach seems simple, it is not practical in real life. An alternative to measuring equipment parameters is to analyze the performance of the service or application defined in SLA.
Robots are created to simulate user behavior and analyze the service’s performance. One problem with measuring is that it can be intrusive. This has two consequences. First, each request to monitor an ICT system uses CPU and bandwidth. Second, the ICT infrastructure’s performance will affect the time taken to respond to a monitoring request.
Another approach to assess ICT performances is to use mathematical theories from one of two methods, constructive and black box. The constructive methods are based upon the assembly of elementary parts with specific properties.
Their combination can be used for estimating average delays, buffer occupation (queuing theory), or bounded delays (network calculus theory). (Georges and al., 2005).
The second method considers the ICT system (or a portion thereof) as a blackbox and analyzes its behavior (output), in relation to changes in ICT parameters (input). This analysis (also known as experiment design method) can help to define a model for the ICT system. Although the black box method is not as generic as the constructive, it is more compatible with actual ICT properties.
It is quite interesting to combine the models and measures in a monitoring system. The models show the expected behavior of an ICT system, while the measurements reflect its actual behavior. A difference between models and measures can be used to detect anomalies and to anticipate faults according to a trend analysis. Combining models and measures is one method to create a successful monitoring system.
Their performance evaluation has primarily focused on technical and financial indicators since the inception of computer science and telecommunications. As we have already explained, ICT’s ultimate goal is to improve people’s lives, without causing any untoward effects on their health and quality of life. These effects should also be evaluated throughout the entire lifecycle of ICT products or ICT-based solutions, including its manufacturing, use, and future lives.
To determine the ICT carbon footprint and the toxic material rate in ICT devices, as well as other factors that impact the health of the population, it is necessary to do an overall assessment of the pollution. To preserve the quality and safety of future generations, ICT resources must be continuously reduced. Recycling and the extensive use of renewable energies are two ways to preserve the Earth’s resources. Another issue is the quality of life.
This includes ethical questions for ICT users and employees as well as general considerations like the salary of employees and gender balance. There are also questions specific to ICT such as privacy and data protection.
ICT must be evaluated using the three Ps (pillars) of sustainable development (Figure 3.1) during engineering of the target system as an entire. This involves balancing profit, people, and planet requirements, with the ultimate goal of designing green ICT solutions.
To analyze the positive or negative effects of the three pillars on ICT engineering, it should be holistic. The mitigation of data center energy use is a good example. This has both environmental and economic benefits. However, increasing the data center capacity to support business growth consumes more energy and has a negative effect on the environment.
The well-known analysis with a C2C fracture tile tool (Donough & Braungart 2002) presents a new challenge. ICT engineers must study the solution areas not only in terms of business and technical performance but also in terms of associating ecological and ethical metrics. The SLA specifications can be more complicated because they must incorporate additional requirements.
Systems engineering can manage this complexity to ensure that ICT-based products and services are sustainable. It also allows for verification and validation of technical solutions. The sustainability is not only expressed in term of longevity of solutions but also must include properties of modularity, flexibility, scalability, and recyclability.
This chapter aims to highlight the various aspects of ICT metrics. This section explains briefly the traditional metrics that are used to evaluate intrinsic ICT performance.
Section “Ecological measures and ethical consideration” is focused on performance indicators that are specific to the environment. From a simple ICT architecture, Section “Systems Engineering for Designing Sustainable ICT-Based Architectures” presents systems engineering approach to specify and to consider the measures in Green ICT-based solutions. The chapter is concluded by Section “Conclusion”.