|Definition||:||Information and Communication Technology|
|Category||:||Technology » Specifications & Standards|
What is ICT?
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is often used to refer to information technology (IT), but it is usually a general term that emphasizes the importance of unified communications and the integration telecommunications, computers and middleware, as well as the software, storage- and audiovisual systems necessary for users to create, access and store information.
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a term that refers to information and communications technologies.
There is no one universal definition of ICT. However, it is commonly accepted that the term refers to all devices, networking components and applications that allow people and organisations (e.g., government agencies, criminal enterprises, and businesses) to interact with the digital world.
ICT encompasses both the internet-enabled sphere as well as the mobile one powered by wireless networks. It also includes obsolete technologies such as radio broadcast, landline telephones and radio — all of which are still used in conjunction with cutting-edge ICT pieces like artificial intelligence and robotics.
Sometimes ICT is used interchangeably with IT (for information tech); however, ICT is more commonly used to refer to all components of computer and digital technology than IT.
It is impossible to list all the ICT components, and it keeps growing. Some components, like computers and telephones have been around for decades. Some components, like computers and telephones, have been around for decades. Others, such smartphones, digital TVs, and robots are newer.
ICT often refers to more than just its components. It includes the application of all these components. This is where the true potential, power, and danger of ICT are found.
ICT is leveraged for economic, societal and interpersonal transactions and interactions. The way people communicate, learn, and work has been drastically altered by ICT.
ICT continues to revolutionize every aspect of human experience. First computers, and now robots, perform many of the tasks previously performed by humans.
Computers used to answer phones and direct calls to the right people. Robots can now answer calls and can handle service requests much faster and more efficiently than before.
The importance of ICT to economic development has been so significant that many consider it the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
Broad shifts in society are also supported by ICT. Individuals are shifting from face-to-face interaction to digital interactions via ICT. This new era is frequently termed the Digital Age.https://www.youtube.com/embed/5PDQKu2-bAc
Despite its many revolutionary features, ICT capabilities don’t exist in equal numbers. Simply put, ICT capabilities are more accessible to rich countries and individuals who are therefore more likely to take advantage of the opportunities and advantages offered by ICT.
Take, for instance, the World Bank’s findings. It was reported that 75% of the world’s population had access to a cell phone in 2016. A lack of ICT infrastructure means that internet access via fixed or mobile broadband is still prohibitively expensive in many countries.
The World Bank also estimated that more than 4 billion of the 7.4 billion global citizens don’t have internet access. It also estimated that only 1.1 million people have high-speed Internet access.
In the United States and elsewhere, this discrepancy in access to ICT has created the so-called digital divide.
The World Bank, numerous governmental authorities and non-government
The World Bank, numerous governmental authorities and non-government organizations (NGOs) advocate policies and programs that aim to bridge the digital divide by providing greater access to ICT among those individuals and populations struggling to afford it.
These institutions claim that people without ICT abilities are excluded from the many opportunities and benefits ICT offers and that they will be further behind in socioeconomic terms.
One of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that the United Nations has adopted is to “significantly increase information and communication technology access and to strive to provide universal, affordable internet access in least developed countries by 2020.”
Both the ICT market and larger business areas offer economic advantages.
The advancement in ICT capabilities has made it cheaper to develop and deliver various technologies for ICT vendors. This has created new market opportunities and also reduced costs. Telephone companies, which used to have to maintain miles of telephone lines, now use advanced networking materials that can deliver internet, TV, and telephone services. Consumers have more options in terms of delivery and pricing.
ICT has brought many benefits to businesses. These include highly automated business processes that reduce costs and the big data revolution, where organizations turn the huge amount of data generated through ICT into insights that enable them to create new products and services. ICT-enabled transactions like internet shopping, telemedicine, and social media give customers more options in how they communicate, shop, and interact with each other.
However, ICT has created challenges and problems for individuals and organizations as well as the society at large.
Digitalization of data, increased use of high-speed Internet and a growing global network have all led to new levels in crime. Bad actors can create electronically enabled schemes, illegally gain access systems, steal money, intellectual property, private information, or disrupt critical infrastructure systems.
ICT has also brought automation and robots that displace workers who are unable to transfer their skills to new positions. ICT has also allowed people to be more isolated from others, creating what some fear is a population that may lose some of its humanity.
Continue reading about ICT (information technology and communications technology)
- ICT popularity drops among UK students
- UK’s investment in ICT, as a percentage of GDP, ranks near bottom of list of 21 countries
- One former IT professional weighs in on the impact of Brexit on the ICT industry
- ICT resources from the World Bank
artificial intelligenceArtificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. See the complete definitiondigital Process Automation Complete definitionrobotA robot can be a machine that executes one or more tasks with speed and precision. There are as many different … See complete definition
W.H. Dutton, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001
Tele-access: Dimensions 1.1
ICTs are more than access to information and the technology of the computer. This is implied by the conventional discussion about the information haves’ or have-nots.
ICTs impact the access of individuals, households, firms, nations, and countries to information, peoples, services, and technology. Tele-access is a concept that highlights the impact of ICTs on access to a wide range of economic and social resources.
The social and technical options made about ICTs may alter the electronic and physical access to four interrelated resources, information, people and services. Access to information is the most well-known.
ICTs do more than just change how people access information. They also alter the entire corpus of information that a person has and the information that is available to them at any time.
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play an important role in providing information to some people
ICTs can make some people more information-rich than others. Access to information is just one of the many relationships that ICTs can create, and it’s not always the most important.
Access to ICTs is also influenced by them. The design and usage of ICTs can have a profound impact on how people communicate. It also influences who they meet, talk with, keep in touch with, work alongside, and get to know.
ICTs are able to connect people or isolate them. In the 1990s, electronic mail (email) was the most popular use of the Internet. This is because it allowed people to communicate with each other, and not to access information .
Third, ICTs impact access to services. ICTs can do more than just change how people consume information, products and services. They can also impact the products and services that a person purchases and where they are purchased from.
ICTs can make a business obsolete or create an entirely new industry.
ally, access to particular technologies–equipment
Finally, access to particular technologies–equipment, know-how, and techniques–shapes access to other technologies as ICTs interconnect and depend on one another in many ways. The Internet may allow access to many computers all over the globe, but a person must have a computer as well as other ICTs (such a telephone line, cable connection or wireless device) in order to access it.
ICTs can also reduce, screen and strengthen tele-access in many other ways, including by accident or design.
ICTs don’t just give access to more information and more people; they also change the patterns of interaction between people.
As a substitute for face-to-face communication, for example, ICTs can provide benefits such as reducing travel, saving time, and extending the geography of human community.
They may replace valuable human contact with a much less rewarding form of communication, fostering social isolation, or permit communication among people who might never have an opportunity to meet face to face.
Tele-access covers all of these substitutions, enhancements and much more. It focuses on how people make technical and social choices about ICTs that can reshuffle society and influence who is in and who is out.
Eric Rondeau, … Gerard Morel, in Green Information Technology, 2015
Engineers in information and communication technology (ICT), are creating and developing a virtual world that offers new services and applications to people for their work and daily lives.
However, ICT engineers are often constrained by the inherent hardware performance of storage systems and communication systems in order to develop projects.
Monitoring and measuring physical ICT system performance is crucial in order to determine the CPU load, available memory, and use bandwidth and to ensure that ICT-based services work correctly according to their intended use.
Moore’s law, which states that the number transistors on a single chip will double every 18 months, has allowed for rapid growth in digital system performance. These technical performances don’t give any information about the quality of the services offered.
Telecommunications – International Telecommunication Union
In the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication (ITU-T) standardization sector’s E.800 recommendation (ITU-E800, 1994), quality of service (QoS) is defined as “the collective effect of service performances, which determine the degree of satisfaction of a user of the service.”
The satisfaction of users is then the key of ICT business and must be specified in a service-level agreement (SLA) signed by ICT experts and their customers.
SLA, by definition, is not technical and must be understood by all parties who don’t necessarily know ICT terms.
Two important issues need to be addressed during the SLA specification. One is the identification of the relationships between performance indicators as defined by the user’s ICT technical performance and the ICT application. The other is the monitoring of these indicators in order to ensure that the contract is being fulfilled.
Translation between ICT and user’s application performance covers many kinds of problems. The translation can be direct such as having the application response time correspond to the time for ICT experts to process and transport the applicative request.
The main challenge in this instance is to define the context of the requirement in terms number of users, opening times, etc. and to identify the type of delay (worst, average, confidence interval, etc. You can find out more.
The translation process can become more complicated if the requirements of the user are not expressed in a specific professional language. The stability of an industrial process’ behavior around a target point is one way to assess its control. In the research on networked control systems, the identification of impact of ICT performances (and especially network) on industrial process stability requires complex preliminary studies and development of new approaches (Vatanski et al., 2009).
Another barrier to the SLA definition is that the user must specify their requirements using qualitative and not quantitative information. It is difficult to assess and associate subjective perceptions with ICT parameters such as delay, jitter, and quality of phone calls, TV broadcasts, web sites, etc. The user’s perception of quality is usually transformed into a metric using a mean opinion score. This scale ranges from 0 (no service), to 5 (perfect service). This guideline will be used by ICT professionals when designing their technical configurations.
To identify the boundary between ICT systems and applications, it is important to monitor the indicators in SLA. It is important to identify and understand the causes of malfunctions, and to identify the responsibilities of stakeholders.
To detect, anticipate and recover from faults, ICT systems need to be continuously monitored. You can use models, measures, or a combination thereof to assess ICT performance.
Management information base
The measurement needs probes, a monitoring device, and protocols that allow for access to all metrics. A management information base (MIB), which is usually implemented for every piece of equipment (computers, printers, switches, routers, etc.) supports all equipment properties in a standardized hierarchical structure (name, OS version, storage capacities and bandwidth). You can find out more.
Monitoring systems such as Centreon, Nagios and Centreon can then be used to modify or collect the information stored in MIB. can then collect or modify the information stored in MIB by using simple network management protocol (SNMP). Although this approach seems simple, it is not practical in practice. An alternative to measuring parameters of equipment is to analyze directly the performance of the application or service as defined in SLA.
Robots are created to simulate user behavior and mimic the ICT infrastructure. One problem with measuring is that it can be intrusive. This has two consequences. First, each request to monitor an ICT system uses CPU and bandwidth. Second, the ICT infrastructure’s performance will affect the time taken to respond to a monitoring request.
Another approach to assess ICT performances is to use mathematical theories from one of two methods, constructive and black box. The constructive methods are based upon the assembly of elementary parts with specific properties. Their combination can be used for estimating average delays, buffer occupation (queuing theory), or bounded delays (network calculus theory). (Georges and al., 2005).
The second method considers the ICT system (or a portion thereof) as a blackbox. It then analyzes its behavior (output), in relation to changes in ICT parameters (input). This analysis (also known as experiment design method) can help to define a model for the ICT system. Although the black box method is not as generic as the constructive, it is more compatible with actual ICT properties.
It is quite interesting to combine the models and measures in a monitoring system. The models show the expected behavior of an ICT system, while the measurements reflect its actual behavior. A difference between models and measures can be used to detect anomalies and to anticipate faults according to a trend analysis. Combining models and measures is one method to create a successful monitoring system.
Since the inception of computer science and telecommunications
Their performance evaluation has mainly been focused on technical and financial indicators since the inception of computer science and telecommunications. As we have explained at the beginning of this introduction the ultimate goal of ICTs is to improve people’s lives, without causing any adverse effects on their quality or health.
These effects should also be evaluated throughout the entire lifecycle of ICT products or ICT-based solution, including its manufacturing, use, and future lives. To determine the ICT carbon footprint and the toxic material rate in ICT devices, as well as other factors that impact the health of the public, it is necessary to do an overall assessment of the pollution.
To preserve the quality and vitality of future generations, it is imperative that the Earth’s ICT resources are continually reduced. Recycling and the extensive use of renewable energies are two ways to preserve the Earth’s resources.
Another issue is the quality of life. This applies to both ICT company employees and ICT users. There are general considerations like the salary of employees and the gender balance. However, there are also specific questions such as privacy and protection of personnel data.
ICT must be evaluated using the three Ps (pillars) of sustainable development (Figure 3.1) during engineering of the target system as an entire. This involves balancing profit, people, and planet requirements, with the ultimate goal of designing green ICT solutions.
To analyze the positive or negative effects of the three pillars on ICT engineering, it should be holistic. The mitigation of data center energy use is a good example of this. It has both environmental and economic benefits.
However, increasing the data center capacity to support business activities can result in a greater use of energy and a decrease in our planet’s ability to sustain it. The well-known analysis with a C2C fracture tile tool (Donough & Braungart 2002) presents a new challenge. ICT engineers must study the solution areas not only in terms of business and technical performance but also in terms of associating ecological and ethical metrics. The SLA specifications can be more complicated because they must incorporate additional requirements.
Systems engineering can manage this complexity to ensure that ICT products, services and ICT-based solutions are sustainable. It is also possible to validate and verify all technical solutions. The sustainability is not only expressed in term of longevity of solutions but also must include properties of modularity, flexibility, scalability, and recyclability.
This chapter aims to highlight the various aspects of ICT metrics. The chapter is organized as follows: Section “ICT Technical measures” briefly explains traditional metrics that are used to evaluate intrinsic ICT performance.
Section “Ecological Measures and Ethical Consideration” examines the specific performance indicators that relate to the environment. From a simple ICT architecture, Section “Systems Engineering for Designing Sustainable ICT-Based Architectures” presents systems engineering approach to specify and to consider the measures in Green ICT-based solutions. The chapter’s conclusion is shown in the book.
Christina N. Harrington, … Wendy A. Rogers, in Design for Health, 2020
Information and communication technology can be used to manage your health-care needs.
Individuals can store, access, and send information and personal data via ICTs in a number of convenient ways. The Internet has been used more frequently to identify health conditions, locate health-care providers, and store personal information. This is crucial for improving the quality of life for many people.
These technologies are often called eHealth and mHealth technologies. They include health portals, databases for individual health records, telemedicine devices and electronic learning tools.
These technologies could be a valuable resource for older adults in terms of health maintenance and promotion. According to Pew Research Center data, 67% of those over 65 use the Internet, and 42% use mobile phones on a regular basis, according to Anderson & Perrin 2017
Many ICTs are easily accessible and can be used to bridge the digital divide that has existed for many years among older adults.
This is how ICTs can increase independence in health maintenance. Mobile devices and Internet systems are personal tools that allow individuals to manage their own health through remote interaction with health-care professionals (telemedicine), possibly eliminating barriers to in-person care.
According to current reports, 71% of older adults use the internet for health information. This percentage could rise as more older adults become tech-savvy.
More specifically, it is believed that older adults are interested in using mobile ICTs to manage specific health conditions, organize and keep up with appointments, and other tasks (Davidson & Jensen 2013; Fox & Duggan 2013).
Health information is projected
Although the number of older adults who use the internet to find health information is expected to increase, it has been shown that the majority of them are now using medical messaging and communication (45% of those over 65 according to the National Poll on Health Aging). This despite the fact that many older adults prefer to have in-person discussions about their health. It may be useful to understand the current use of ICTs by older adults and possible reasons for their non-use. This information can then be used as a starting point for developing better ICTs for health maintenance.
There is strong evidence that ICTs are useful in health-care support for caregivers or medical professionals. However, ICTs can also be used to manage chronic conditions and maintain wellness in older adults.
We therefore focus on ICTs related to health that can be used by older adults, rather than those used on them by doctors.
Bhavishya Goel, … Magnus Sjalander, in Advances in Computers, 2012
Green Computing is more than just a buzzword. The greening movement in the Information and Communication Technology sector (ICT) has become a major trend among service providers and manufacturers.
End users too are taking on the challenge to create a sustainable society and environment that allows us to continue our use and development of information technology. This movement is fueled by environmental legislation, rising operational and disposal costs, as well as public perceptions and corporate image.
ICT companies are increasingly aware of the impact environmental issues have on their products and services. ICT organizations now make more informed decisions about what they buy.
Many ICT providers are now focusing on options that will reduce the long-term costs.
ICT providers are now more focused on reducing long-term, adverse environmental impacts than reducing operational costs. Over a computing system’s lifetime, the array of costs includes design, verification, manufacturing, deployment, operation, maintenance, retirement, disposal, and recycling. Each of these costs include an ICT component. Green ICT therefore spans:
environmental risk mitigation;*
Assessment tools and green metrics;
Energy-efficient computing and power management
Design and location of data centers;
Recycling and disposal that is environmentally friendly;
Compliance with the law
Murugesan points out that every personal computer used in 2008 generated approximately a ton of CO2 per year . Multiple independent studies estimated that the global ICT footprint was 2%  of all the human-caused emissions in 2007-2008.
Global emissions from the ICT sector will rise by 6% per year through 2020 , but other sectors will see more reductions due to technological advances and product and service growth. Green Computing has far-reaching implications beyond ICT.
This growing carbon footprint can be explained by the increasing use of ICT to generate electrical energy. System architects can reduce power consumption as a first step towards addressing the bigger problem of total emissions.
While power efficiency is only one aspect of this multifaceted environmental problem. However, designing more efficient systems will allow for the development of solutions that affect other aspects.
Hardware/software codesign is likely to provide the most robust solutions. This allows hardware to provide more power consumption information to software, which can then be used to save power throughout their system.
Until such combined solutions exist, though, we still need to reduce power consumption of existing platforms. This chapter describes a method to achieve this reduction in current systems.
Introspection into the dynamic behavior and power-aware resource management is essential. We will first talk about the difficulties in obtaining this information. We can solve this problem by using performance monitoring counters (PMCs).
These counters are almost ubiquitous on current platforms and provide the best introspection possible into system and computational activity. To build per-core power consumption models, we use PMC values. These models can then be used for power estimations to support resource management decisions. For such models to be useful, we must verify their accuracy, which requires a means to measure dynamic power consumption.
We will discuss the pros and cons of each power-measurement technique in Section 3. We begin by reviewing previous power modeling work, before going into detail about our methodology. We present Section 5 as a case study in power management techniques that leverage this method. View chapter.
Christine Hagar, in Crisis Information Management, 2012
Volunteers can use ICTs to collaborate to create platforms for information processing and aggregation – called ‘crowdsourcing’. This allows them to help solve real-world crises. These platforms allow volunteers to work together to create platforms for information aggregation and processing – ‘crowdsourcing’ – to solve real-world crisis problems.
M. Huth, … R. Masucci, in Handbook of System Safety and Security, 2017
Information and communications technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems, and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.
The design, implementation and validation of ICT systems can be approached in a variety of ways. Conventional and traditional approaches typically address one or two core system issues at once.
A separate engineering activity may address additional aspects. The separation of these concerns has resulted in system engineering practices that do not reflect, detect or manage interdependencies. This includes the interplay between safety and security in modern cars, as well as security, privacy and reliability in connected medical devices. However, current trends and innovation in ICT suggest that there is convergence of risk domains and disciplines to effectively and predictably deal with these interdependencies.
But due to the inherent complexity of such interdependencies and the dynamic operational environments, identification and mitigation of composite risks in systems remains a challenge. It is essential that mitigation and risk management be an integral part of future ICT systems engineering.
We need a new approach for risk management to meet the demands of today’s computing environment. Risk modeling should be an integral part of design. This chapter will address some of the major challenges and issues associated with risk engineering. These include issues such as risk composition, multidisciplinary nature, design, development and use of risks metrics, and the need to have an extensible language for risk modeling.
This chapter gives an overview of the foundational mechanisms that we must build to support our vision of risk engineering. It includes risk ontology (risk modeling and composition), risk language (risk language), and risk ontology (risk ontology).
C. Estevez, J. Wu, in Cyber-Physical Systems, 2017
Information and communication technology (ICT), is a rapidly expanding field. Future smart city applications could include new cyber-physical systems technologies that may have visible impacts on the environment. This may either be beneficial or detrimental.
This chapter examines the impact of cyber-physical system (CPSs), the role and relevant applications of CPSs, and how these systems can be improved to promote a more sustainable coexistence. Most energy today is generated by nonrenewable sources, which, to different extents, cannot ensure sustainability within societal development.
It has been reported that ICT infrastructure and systems are critical energy consumers, as they consume about 2-5% of the world’s energy, which will keep increasing as cyber-physical-system-based technologies become more ubiquitous. Reduced energy consumption is a key factor in reducing ICT’s negative impact on the environment.
There are many ways to achieve this goal. This chapter will provide a brief overview of some of the relevant options. Many works have been done to reduce power consumption for machine-tomachine (M2M), communications in cellular networks. There have been other works discussing how to reduce energy consumption under large-scale-equipment architectures, such as those installed by telecommunication operators.
The use of small, cost-effective, and resource-constrained devices
There has been also some work that describes the use of small, inexpensive, resource-constrained devices with pervasive computing capabilities to deploy an ubiquitous energy control system.
CPS can be used to reduce energy consumption and also in cases where it directly impacts the environment.
Some of these cases include the monitoring of forests and plantation, the automation of vegetation care through an Internet of Things (IoT) network, and using IoT in green agricultural products supply chain management.
A better ICT design can have a positive impact on the environment.
Eric Luiijf, in Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigator’s Handbook, 2014
Since its inception in World War II, ICT has seen many innovation cycles. New ICT developments are adopted by industry and society in a way which reflects the technology adaption lifecycle model coined by Bohlen and Beal (1957).
The innovations are taken up by early adopters. It is possible to recognize a rapid uptake of ICT innovations by organizations and users after their breakthrough. The mainstream phase is when the negative side effects of the new innovation are overcome.
Venkatesh and colleagues demonstrated it. Venkatesh (2003) and Bala (2008) showed that ICT innovation adoption is largely related to ease-of-use and its utility to end-users and organizations. In short, user-friendly functionality.
According to their findings, the cyber security aspects of ICT innovation do not play any role. One might expect that cyber security issues would be more prominent after all the ICT innovation cycles that we have been through. However, that is not the case. It is because there are no lessons learned from previous ICT innovation cycles in cyber security and the same mistakes are repeated repeatedly as ICT innovations are driven by outside security-aware communities.
To log in, one could simply walk to a terminal in the 1960s and type a username or password. A new user environment was created if the username was incorrectly entered.
All users had access to the password file, which was often accessible by all programmers and users. As computers became more secure, one was able to try different passwords for the same username less often.
The manifold of security problems posed by buffer overflows and lack of input validation allowing hackers to elevate their access level to system resources were fixed in the operating systems of mainframes in the mid-seventies. However, each new operating system version contained the same type of design and coding errors in newly developed functionality and patching of those holes was required.
The seventies saw the birth of new and existing computer companies.
Existing and new computer companies created an ICT revolution in the seventies by bringing mini computers, midi computers and other computing devices to departments within organizations. These systems were designed to be used in small cooperative settings, so their advantages included ease of use.
You could simply walk up to the system, reboot it and then run your programs. There was no security other than physical access to the room. Multi-user usage was added in a simple way, as viewed from a computer security angle. The original UNIX/etc/passwd files were world-readable. It contained the usernames as well as the one-way encrypted passwords they were associated with and the random salt value.
The one-way encryption process was supposed to provide strong system access security as the process was irreversible. Although the claim was true, hackers used brute force to process all character permutations using the fast password algorithm. They then compared the result with encrypted passwords stored in the password file.
he password strength and time
It was possible to easily reveal passwords and usernames using out-of-the-box thinking. Moreover, Moore’s law caused an increase in processing speed each year and thus decreased the password strength and time needed to break username-password combinations.
Other operating systems allowed users to interrupt programs that had access to password files and create a memory dump with all passwords in plaintext.
Bad coding practices, such as buffer overflows or lack of input validation, meant that operating systems on minis and midis could not be protected against hackers, just like older mainframes. Security was prioritized over the provision of new functionality within the operating system.
Apple’s Apple II was launched in 1977. In 1981, IBM launched the Personal Computer (PC). The first disk operating systems didn’t provide any security beyond a read-only bit that protected against accidental overwriting. After all, personal computers were the real culprit.
Since 1983, when PCs were connected to each other with Novell and the LAN Manager, more security was required.
Additional security measures were required to protect the PC platform, which was not designed to be secure, and its Windows operating systems.
Simple access to memory, disk scavenging and clear text passwords on networks were all major weaknesses in computer security. One example is the legacy support for LAN Manager Windows/NT, where it was possible to determine the length and complexity of a user’s password.
Similar to the Windows/NT password protection, which was based only on internal system protection, it failed after hackers accessed the file system using a Unix-based bootable disk and an application.
It took until after the millennium before manufacturers like Microsoft started to take the security of their server operating systems serious. During this time, there were design flaws in encryption processes for wireless networking technology.
Market and the new functionality
Proper cyber security was not as important as pushing for the global market and the new functionality. The wireless encryption protocol WEP proved to be insecure quickly, prompting the replacement. Why didn’t the system developers and programmers learn from security failures in the past? They only looked for functionality.
Parallel to this, ICT was used in the automation and control of real-world and physical processes, such as switching rail points and controlling the power, gas, and water grids. Security considerations were not taken into account when designing the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), and other similar process control protocols. It was proprietary software and no other parties were interested in its details.
Process control networks were secured so hackers couldn’t gain access. In thousands of units around the globe, the same manufacturer root password that one couldn’t change was embedded. The Stuxnet case was a case in making use of such a design and deployment error (Falliere et al., 2010).
He design and implements SCADA protocols
SCADA protocols were not designed and implemented in a timely manner to meet the current security requirements. Connectivity with public networks, ease of teleworking, and tools like Shodan which identify vulnerable process control systems connected to the internet create the access paths for cyber criminals to critical infrastructures such as our energy grids (Averill and Luiijf, 2010).
Only some years ago, testing a SCADA network with the ICT-network tool Nmap at a large inhomogeneous SCADA installation caused one-third of the SCADA implementation to crash and another one-third to stop communication. SCADA protocol implementations were unable to deal with unexpected bytes in received packets. The implementation assumed a benign operating environment, so it failed to validate the protocol packets received.
These are just a few examples of ICT innovation and adaptation cycles in which system designers failed to properly consider security considerations and programmers failed from the cyber security lessons learned in previous ICT adaptation cycles. Failing to protect against buffer overflows, no input validation, not cleaning of sensitive information from re-usable memory buffers, and embedding system passwords are just some examples of errors–and thus disguised old threats–that occur over and over again with each ICT innovation cycle.
New ICT-functionality opens up new backdoors
New ICT-functionality can also open up new backdoors. For example, new versions of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) boards nowadays may contain an embedded web engines. Often such new PLC boards replace old defective PLC boards. However, the new functionality allows for access to all PLC functions, unless you take the time to lock your web interface entry.
Luiijf (2010) provides more examples of such and other threats to process controls systems. View chapterPurchase book
T. Guelzim, … B. Sadoun, in Smart Cities and Homes, 2016
2.1.5 Smart Governance
ICT plays an important role in the governance and development of smart cities to generate value for society . Governance was considered a political system by many international organizations up until the late 1990s. This view is beginning to be challenged, and sometimes vanishes as information systems play a major role in our daily lives and the city’s infrastructure. The following five pillars were suggested as a way to reexamine governance practices .
These five concepts can only be implemented effectively if modern information systems are used to communicate with city residents. Figure. 1.2
Fig. Fig.1.2 illustrates a framework that uses ICT to create value in society. It is codenamed “The smart house” . The foundation of this model is data and networking. On top of that are three pillars that serve to support good governance, transform social organizations, and guide residents in making their daily decisions. This foundation enables smart, efficient services like sustainable energy, fair employment and a better quality of living.
Smart governance also includes better city planning, emergency management and budgeting. Forecasting is also based on real-time data that describes changing priorities as well as current needs. It also depends on better healthcare and strategic orientation to reduce the impact of aging people. It also ensures the monitoring and aggregation of energy consumption and production data to help with better management strategies . View chapter
F. Schiliro, K.-K.R. Choo, in Mobile Security and Privacy, 2017
Information and communication technology (ICT), is a broad term that covers all communications devices and applications, including mobile phones, computers and network hardware, software and the Internet. Satellite systems and satellite systems are also included. ICT can also be used to refer to the many services and applications that are associated with them, such distance learning and videoconferencing.
Like other police agencies around the globe, Australian police departments are dependent on ICT for their operations. As ICT advances, this need increases.
Police officers are prevented from performing their duties by poor ICT systems. An improved ICT system can increase police productivity. This will allow officers to do the same amount of work with fewer officers or the equivalent number of officers.
Technological innovations like the phone and mobile radio are numerous
To improve the effectiveness of police work, technology innovations like the tape recorder, mobile radio and telephone have been introduced to the field over the years. They have had a significant impact on the functioning of police departments and the way they do their jobs (Choo (2011); Ready and Young (2015); Tanner and Meyer (2015); Koper and al. (2015)).
Although it was not widely recognized when it was first introduced to policing, mainframe computer technology had a significant impact on the way police agencies operated over three decades ago. It enabled the storage, retrieval, and collection of large amounts data. As a result, police information systems were possible. To capture the data, many forms were needed. Officers had to complete the forms to report it.
First, people were hired to code the data and then feed it into the computers. Others were responsible for retrieving the data and distributing it to others. The mainframe technology resulted in more bureaucracy and more paperwork for police officers.
Computer technology has replaced or improved mainframe functions
Client/server technology has now replaced or improved mainframe functions, and has revolutionized basic organizational functions as well as paper systems. All of the above can be done electronically, with much less effort and by fewer people. Operative police, for example, can bring laptop computers into patrol cars to get data directly.
Police have access to unlimited information via the internet and internal electronic mail systems. This allows them to do their job more efficiently. Police officers have greater access to internal information systems.
Automated training for police officers can be done at times that are convenient for the officer and the organization. This reduces training costs and eliminates the need to take multiple officers out on the field at once.
Police work has been affected by the rapid advancements in information technology over that time. Some police agencies are exploring the possibility of integrating all justice information systems, to enable justice practitioners and agencies to electronically share and access information across systems or jurisdictional lines. This has been partially implemented by some agencies.
technology linked to telecommunications systems
The Internet allows officers to share information and consult with others via list servs and websites related to police.
However, the phablet, a new network computer technology linked to telecommunications systems, has even more potential to transform police work. As smartphones have grown in size and capabilities, the phablet too has evolved.
Phablets come with screens measuring diagonally between 135 and 178 mm (5.3-6.99in). This size is ideal for screen-intensive activities such as multimedia viewing and mobile web browsing. Software optimized for a phablet may include an integrated stylus that can be used to draw and make annotations. Perhaps these characteristics, such as the screen size or stylus, were what made policing so unique?
Although the Galaxy Note is widely credited with launching the global phablet market in 2011, there are examples of devices that were similar to it back in 1993. The benefits of phablet use were part of the reason why policing agencies like the Australian Federal Police had already begun to envision how the capabilities of a police organization could be transferred from the IT backend to frontline officers by the time that the Galaxy Note 3 was released.
The phablet will be the most powerful computing device for police in the future.
Although the Galaxy Note is widely credited with launching the global phablet market in 2011, there are examples of devices that were similar to it back in 1993. The benefits of phablet use helped policing agencies like the Australian Federal Police to envision how their capabilities could be transferred from the IT backend to frontline officers by the time the Galaxy Note 3 was released. The phablet will be the most popular computing device for police in the future.
While ICT plays an important part in criminal investigation success, police management and competence are equally important. ICT must be integrated into police work, not just adapted to it, in order for it to have a significant role.