cpu full form| What does CPU mean?

CPU

Definition:Central Processing Unit
Category:Computing » Hardware
Country/Region:Worldwide Worldwide
Popularity:
Type:Initialism

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What does the CPU (cpu full form) stand for?

Central Processing Unit (CPU() is the main component of a computer that does most of the processing inside it.CPUIt is often referred to as the brain of the computer.

Central processing unit

Computer

Central processing unit (CPU).The core of any digital project is the web.ComputerSystem, usually composed of the mainMemoryIt includes the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit. ItIt isIt is the heart of all computer systems; it is linked to many other things.

peripheralEquipment,input/output devicesAndauxiliary storage units. Modern computers have the CPU contained in anIntegrated circuit ChipAlso known as amicroprocessor.

The central processing unit’s control unit controls and integrates computer operations. It retrieves the correct sequence of instructions from the main storage and interprets them to activate other functional elements at the right moment to carry out their respective operations.

All input data are sent via the main memory to an arithmetic logic unit for processing. This includes the four basic functions of arithmetic (i.e. addition, subtraction and multiplication) and certain logic operations like the comparison of data and selecting the problem-solving method or alternative that meets predetermined criteria.

Whirlwind (cpu full form)

Computer

WhirlwindThe first real-time computer, that is, a computer capable of responding almost instantly to basic instructions. This allows an operator to interact directly with a “running”, computer. It was constructed at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) between 1948-51. Whirlwind was designed by and constructed byJay ForresterJan Aleksander Rajchman and MIT of theRadio Corporation of America(RCA) had created a new type of memory based upon magnetic cores, which was fast enough for real-time operation.

Robert Noyce

Robert NoyceIn fullRobert Norton Noyce(Born December 12, 1927),Burlington?Iowa, U.S.–died June 3, 1990,AustinTexas, USA (American engineer and inventor of theIntegrated circuitA system of interconnected transistors that are integrated on one silicon microchip.

Education

The Noyce family relocated to Grinnell in Iowa in 1939. Their father was a Congregational minister. It was here that the son developed the skills of an inventor, and tinkerer. 

Noyce studied inPhysicsAtGrinnell College(B.A., 1949), and received a doctorate inSolid statePhysics from theMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyFor a dissertation on the subject, see (MIT; Ph.D. 1953).TechnologyHe found the most fascinating thing about it,Transistor.

Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory (cpu full form)

Developed at Bell Laboratories in 1947, the transistor had figured in Noyce’s imagination since he saw an early one in a college physics class. In 1956, while working for Philco Corporation, Noyce met William Shockley, one of the transistor’s Nobel Prize-winning inventors. 

Shockley was recruiting researchers for Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, a company that he had started in Palo Alto, California, to produce high-speed transistors. Noyce was excited about the opportunity and rented a Palo Alto house before his formal job interview.

However, engineers from the new company rebelled against Shockley and tried to force him out of his managerial position. They claimed that Shockley’s poor management had delayed production and negatively affected morale. Noyce and seven colleagues, among them Gordon Moore, resigned after failing to remove Shockley. 

With Noyce as their leader, the group–labeled the “traitorous eight” by Shockley–successfully negotiated with the Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company to form a new company, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, located in Santa Clara.

In 1958 Jean Hoerni, another Fairchild Semiconductor founder, engineered a process to place a layer of silicon oxide on top of transistors, sealing out dirt, dust, and other contaminants. For Noyce, Hoerni’s process made a fundamental innovation possible. Fairchild was producing transistors and other elements from large silicon wafers at that time.

The components were then cut out and connected with wires. As the number of connections increased it became more difficult to solder in smaller spaces. Noyce realized that cutting the wafer apart was unnecessary; instead, he could manufacture an entire circuit–complete with transistors, resistors, and other elements–on a single silicon wafer, the integrated circuit (IC).

 In this way, Noyce and Jack Kilby, a Texas Instruments Incorporated co-inventor, saw the same thing. Both saw the importance and both received patents for their respective companies on different aspects of IC design.

 Noyce was more insightful. Noyce realized that the best way to connect the components was to evaporate the lines of conductive metal (the wires) directly onto the silicon wafer’s surfaces. This is known as the planar procedure.

 Kilby and Noyce share credit for independently inventing the integrated circuit. After much litigation Fairchild Semiconductor received a patent for the planar process. This is the same technique that was used by all subsequent manufacturers. Both Fairchild and Noyce were made wealthy by the patent.

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Intel Corporation

Moore and Noyce left Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968 to start their own business. Soon they were joined by Andrew Grove, another Fairchild colleague, and formed Intel Corporation. The first microprocessor was introduced by Intel in 1971. It combined the circuitry needed for information storage and processing on one silicon chip. Intel quickly rose to be the largest producer of microprocessor chip.

Noyce was president of Intel from 1975 to 1975, then he was chairman of its board of directors until 1978 when he stepped down to become chairman at the Semiconductor Industry Association.

Statesman

The SIA was created to address growing economic concerns in the American semiconductor industry, particularly with regard to foreign competition. Noyce was a key player in the establishment of Sematech, an industry-government joint consortium with sometimes conflicting goals.

These included research to keep the American semiconductor sector at the forefront and maintaining a domestic manufacturing capacity. In 1988, Noyce was elected the first president of Sematech Inc.

Noyce was the inventor of 16 patents, and was awarded the National Medal of Science 1979. A lifelong swimmer (and former Iowa state diving champion), Noyce died of a heart attack following a morning swim in 1990.

UNIVAC

Computer

UNIVACIn fullUniversal Automatic ComputerOne of the earliest commercially available cigarette brands was.Computers. After graduating from the Moore School of Electrical Engineering,University of Pennsylvania? J. Presper Eckert, Jr.AndJohn MauchlyHe had been involved in the engineering design of TheENIACComputer for the United StatesWorld War IIThey struggled to get capital to build their latest design of a computer called the Universal Automatic Computer or UNIVAC.

They contracted with theNorthrop CorporationBINAC (the Binary Automatic Computer) was built. It became America’s first stored-program computer in 1949. Although their company, patents, and talents were acquired by Remington Rand, Inc. in 1950, the partners delivered the first UNIVAC in March 1951 to the U.S. Bureau of the Census. 

It was not unlike ENIAC in that it was built as a stored program computer from the beginning. It had an operator keyboard and console.TypewriterMagnetic tape is used for all other inputs, except for those with limited inputs.Input and output. The printed output was first recorded on tape, then printed using a separate tape printer.

The UNIVAC I was a commercial data-processing machine that was intended to replace punched-card accounting machines. It was capable of reading 7,200 decimal numbers per second (it didn’t use binary numbers), making this the fastest business machine ever built.

Its use of Eckert’s mercury delay lines greatly reduced the number of vacuum tubes needed (to 5,000), thus enabling the main processor to occupy a “mere” 14.5 by 7.5 by 9 feet (approximately 4.4 by 2.3 by 2.7 metres) of space. It was a business machine.

This was the result of the convergence of academic computational research and the office automation trend of late 19th century and early 20th century. It was the beginning of the “Big Iron” era, large, mass-produced computing equipment.

coprocessor

Computer science

coprocessorAdditional processors may be used in certain instancesComputersTo perform complex tasks, such as large arithmetic calculations and processing of graphic displays. These tasks are often performed more efficiently by the coprocessor.central processing unit (CPU).This results in much faster computer performance.

Supercomputer

SupercomputerAny of a number of powerful computers. This term refers to the most powerful high-performance computers available. These computers are used for engineering and scientific work that requires high-speed computations. Testing is one of the most common uses for supercomputers.Mathematical modelsComplex physical phenomena and designs such asClimateAndWeatherEvolution of thecosmos?Nuclear weaponsNew reactors and fuel cellsChemical compounds(Especially for pharmaceutical purposes)Cryptology. Supercomputers became more affordable as supercomputer costs fell in the 1990s.Market researchOther business models.

Differentiating features

There are a few distinguishing characteristics of supercomputers. Unlike conventional computers, they usually have more than one CPU (central processing unit), which contains circuits for interpreting program instructions and executing arithmetic and logic operations in proper sequence.

The use of several CPUs to achieve high computational rates is necessitated by the physical limits of circuit technology. The speed limit of electronic signals is the speed at which light travels. This limits signal transmission and circuit switching. 

This limit has almost been reached, owing to miniaturization of circuit components, dramatic reduction in the length of wires connecting circuit boards, and innovation in cooling techniques (e.g., in various supercomputer systems, processor and memory circuits are immersed in a cryogenic fluid to achieve the low temperatures at which they operate fastest). 

To support the high computational speed of CPUs, it is necessary to quickly retrieve stored data and instructions. Therefore, most supercomputers have a very large storage capacity, as well as a very fast input/output capability.

Still another distinguishing characteristic of supercomputers is their use of vector arithmetic–i.e., they are able to operate on pairs of lists of numbers rather than on mere pairs of numbers. 

A typical supercomputer

A typical supercomputer can multiply the hourly wage rates of a group of factory workers with a list containing hours worked by those workers to generate a list indicating the dollars each worker earned. This takes roughly the same amount of time as it takes for a regular computer just to calculate the amount earned.

Supercomputers were initially used for national security applications, such as nuclear weapons design and cryptography. They are routinely used by the automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries. 

In addition, supercomputers have found wide application in areas involving engineering or scientific research, as, for example, in studies of the structure of subatomic particles and of the origin and nature of the universe. Weather forecasting is now possible with the help of supercomputers.

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These predictions are based on numerical models. As the cost of supercomputers declined, their use spread to the world of online gaming. The company that held online rights to electronic games World of Warcraft in China was responsible for the 5th-10th fastest supercomputers in China in 2007.

Historical development

Although early supercomputers were built by various companies, one individual, Seymour Cray, really defined the product almost from the start. Cray was a member of Engineering Research Associates (ERA), a computer company, in 1951. Cray and William Norris, the founder of ERA, left ERA to form Control Data Corporation (CDC).

CDC was founded in 1957. Remington Rand’s UNIVAC computer line and IBM had already divided the market for business computers. CDC wanted to take advantage of the lucrative small market for scientific computers. Cray’s CDC 1604 computer was popular in scientific labs. It was the first to replace vacuum tubes by transistors. 

IBM responded in 1961 by creating its own scientific computer, called the IBM 7030. IBM was slow to adopt the transistor and found few buyers for its tube-transistor hybrid. It then temporarily pulled out of the supercomputer field following a loss of $20 million. 

Cray’s CDC 6600, which could perform three million floating-point operations per seconds (FLOPS) in 1964, replaced Stretch. The computer was quickly referred to as a supercomputer.

Cray quit CDC in 1972 to create Cray Research, Inc. in 1972. He then moved on to Cray Computer Corporation in 1989. His designs were re-used by his former company, which continued to produce supercomputers.

The creation of computers

Cray was involved in all aspects of the creation of computers for his companies. He was particularly skilled at the dense packing of electronic components that make up computers. He was able to reduce the distance signals needed to travel and speed up machines through clever design. He was determined to make the best scientific computer possible.

He programmed in FORTRAN scientific programming language and optimized machines for scientific applications such as differential equations, matrix manipulations and seismic analysis.

Among Cray’s pioneering achievements was the Cray-1, introduced in 1976, which was the first successful implementation of vector processing (meaning, as discussed above, it could operate on pairs of lists of numbers rather than on mere pairs of numbers). 

Cray was also one of the pioneers of dividing complex computations among multiple processors, a design known as “multiprocessing.” One of the first machines to use multiprocessing was the Cray X-MP, introduced in 1982, which linked two Cray-1 computers in parallel to triple their individual performance. In 1985 the Cray-2, a four-processor computer, became the first machine to exceed one billion FLOPS.

liquid immersion cooling systems

While Cray used expensive state-of-the-art custom processors and liquid immersion cooling systems to achieve his speed records, a revolutionary new approach was about to emerge. W. Daniel Hillis, a graduate student from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had an amazing idea to solve the bottleneck caused by the CPU controlling the computations among all processors. 

Hillis realized that the only way to eliminate the bottleneck was to replace the all-controlling CPU with distributed controls. In 1983 Hillis cofounded the Thinking Machines Corporation to design, build, and market such multiprocessor computers. The first of his Connection Machines was the CM-1, which was quickly replaced by the CM-2. The CM-1 utilized an astonishing 65,536 inexpensive one-bit processors, grouped 16 to a chip (for a total of 4,096 chips), to achieve several billion FLOPS for some calculations–roughly comparable to Cray’s fastest supercomputer.

Hillis had originally been inspired by the way that the brain uses a complex network of simple neurons (a neural network) to achieve high-level computations. In fact, an early goal of these machines involved solving a problem in artificial intelligence, face-pattern recognition. Hillis distributed the computational load by assigning each pixel in a photograph to a different processor.

the problem of communication among the processors

However, this created the problem of communication among the processors. Hillis created a 12-dimensional hypercube network to allow processor communication. Each chip was connected to 12 other chips. These machines were quickly referred to as massively parallel computers. Hillis’s machines opened the door to new multiprocessor architectures. They also demonstrated how common or commodity processors could be used for supercomputer results.

Another common artificial intelligence application for multiprocessing was chess. For instance, in 1988 HiTech, built at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa., used 64 custom processors (one for each square on the chessboard) to become the first computer to defeat a grandmaster in a match. 

Deep Blue by IBM was the first computer to defeat Garry Kasparov in a slow game. It used 192 custom-enhanced RS/6000 processors. It was then assigned to predict the weather in Atlanta, Ga., during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. Its successor (now with 256 custom chess processors) defeated Kasparov in a six-game return match in May 1997.

Supercomputing’s primary application was, as always, military. The United States signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996. This created the need for an alternative certification program to protect the country’s aging nuclear stockpile.

the Department of Energy funded the Accelerated Strategic Computer (cpu full form)

In response, the Department of Energy funded the Accelerated Strategic Computer Initiative (ASCI). The project’s goal was to create a computer that could simulate nuclear tests. This required a machine capable executing 100 trillion FLOPS (100 TFLOPS) and the Cray T3E which was capable of 150 Billion FLOPS. ASCI Red, built at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., with the Intel Corporation, was the first to achieve 1 TFLOPS. It was built using 9,072 Pentium Pro standard processors and reached 1.8 TFLOPS by December 1996. It was fully operational in June 1997.

The massively multiprocessing approach was popularized in the United States. However, NEC Corporation in Japan opted for the more traditional approach of custom-designing the computer chip. This was used to create the Earth Simulator.

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It surprised many computer scientists when it landed first on the TOP500 supercomputer speed lists in 2002. It did not hold this position for long, however, as in 2004 a prototype of IBM’s Blue Gene/L, with 8,192 processing nodes, reached a speed of about 36 TFLOPS, just exceeding the speed of the Earth Simulator. 

Following two doublings in the number of its processors

Following two doublings in the number of its processors, the ASCI Blue Gene/L, installed in 2005 at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, Calif., became the first machine to pass the coveted 100 TFLOPS mark, with a speed of about 135 TFLOPS. Many of the TOP500 top-spots were held by Blue Gene/L machines with similar architectures. 

The ASCI Blue Gene/L was able to reach speeds in excess of 500 TFLOPS with regular improvements. These IBM supercomputers are notable for their choice of Linux operating system and IBM’s support of the development of open-source applications.

In 2008, IBM built the first computer capable of exceeding 1,000 TFLOPS (or 1 petaflop). The machine, named Roadrunner after New Mexico’s state bird was tested first at IBM’s New York facilities. It then went on to be disassembled and shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. 

The test version used 6,948 dual core Opteron microchips by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and 12,960 IBM’s Cell Broadband Engines. This was first developed for the Sony Computer Entertainment PlayStation 3 video game system. 

The Cell processor was specifically designed to perform the complex mathematical calculations required to manage the virtual reality simulation engines used in electronic games. This process is very similar to that of scientific researchers who run their mathematical models.

Researchers are now able to perform computer simulations that are based on first principles of physics, not just simplified models, thanks to this breakthrough in computing. This in turn raised prospects for breakthroughs in such areas as meteorology and global climate analysis, pharmaceutical and medical design, new materials, and aerospace engineering

the greatest obstacle is the enormous effort (cpu full form)

To realize the full potential of supercomputers, the greatest obstacle is the enormous effort required to create programs that allow different aspects of the problem to be handled simultaneously by as many processors as possible. This was possible even with a small number of processors. However, IBM’s open-source initiative, supported by various corporate and academic partners, helped to make progress in the 1990s.

ENIAC

Computer

ENIACIn fullElectronic Numerical Indicator and ComputerThe first general-purpose, programmable electronic digital.Computer, built duringWorld War IIUnited States American physicistJohn Mauchly, American engineerJ. Presper Eckert, Jr.They and their colleagues from the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, at theUniversity of PennsylvaniaAs a leader in a government-funded project to create an all-electronic computing system, ENIAC was built under contract to the army, and the work started in 1943. Mathematician was hired the following year.John von NeumannThe group began to meet regularly for consultations.

ENIAC was not the universal computer that many had hoped for. It was designed to compute values for artillery range table tables but it lacked certain features that would have made it more useful. 

the machine ran at an electronic speed

The machine used plugboards to communicate instructions to it; once these instructions were “programmed”, the machine ran at an electronic speed. Instructions from a card reader, or any other slow mechanical device, would have not been able to keep pace with the all-electronic ENIAC. It took several days to wire the machine for every new problem. It was so bad that it could not be called “programmable” without some kind of generosity.

ENIAC, however, was the most powerful calculator ever made. It was the first programmable general-purpose electronic digital computer.

 It was similar to Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine from the 19th century and the British World War II computer Colossus. It had conditional branching, which meant it could execute different instructions, or alter the order in which they were executed, depending on the data. For example, IF X>5 THEN MOVE TO LINE 23. This flexibility gave ENIAC a lot and allowed it to be used for many different problems.

The ENIAC occupied the basement of Moore School

ENIAC was huge. The ENIAC occupied the basement of Moore School, measuring 50 by 30 feet (15 by 9 metres) in size. There, 40 panels were laid out U-shaped along three walls. Each panel measured approximately 2 feet in width, 0.6 metres by 2.4 meters in height and was 2 feet deep.

With more than 17,000 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 6,000 switches, and 1,500 relays, it was easily the most complex electronic system theretofore built. ENIAC was able to run continuously, in part to prolong tube life. It generated 174 kilowatts heat and required its own air conditioning system. 

It could perform up to 5,000 additions per minute, which is several orders of magnitude more than its electromechanical predecessors. The first generation computers are the computers that used vacuum tubes, including its successors. ENIAC had 1,500 mechanical relays and was therefore still transitional to electronic computers later on.

ENIAC was completed by February 1946. The government had spent $400,000 and the war it was meant to win was over. Its first task was doing calculations for the construction of a hydrogen bomb. A portion of the machine is on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

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