Chemical Formulas List for Class 10 PDF| List for Class 10

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Chemistry is a subject that consists mainly of formulas and reactions. Every day we come across chemical substances. Chemical substances can be found in some of the household items, such as the staples in the medicine cupboard.

Chemical Formula in Chemistry can be described as a shorthand to describe the elements in a compound. The Periodic Table contains elements as well as symbols. These Chemical symbols can be used to represent different elements such as H is hydrogen, O, calcium, Na, sodium, and others.Page No. Page No. 2 of Chemical Formulas List Class 10 PDF

Types of Chemistry Formulas and Chemical Formulas

1.Molecular Formula:

The molecular formula tells you how many elements are in a compound. The elements are listed in the same form as the periodic table, where the number of atoms in a compound is written as a subscript. The molecular formula of glucose, for example, is C6H12O6.

2.Empirical Formula:

This formula gives the proportion of elements in a compound. This formula is often derived from the analysis of experimental data. The empirical formula for glucose can be written as CH2O. The molecular formulas are often used to derive empirical formulas.

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3.Structural Formula:

The structural formula, as the name suggests, gives you an idea of the arrangement of the atoms in the compound or molecule along with their bond formations.

The link below allows you to download the Chemical Formulas as a PDF online.

Common Compounds and Their Chemical Formulas

Chemistry is a branch in science that studies the chemical and physical properties of substances. It also examines their composition and how they are used to create new substances. Every element known to man has been given a name and a symbol of one or two letters to help us understand chemistry. The names of most elements come from English, but their symbols are either derived from Latin names or English names.

Exemple:Sodium, an element that is a metal, has its symbol ‘Na’ derived from its Latin name Natrium. Hydrogen is an element that has an elemental symbol “H” which is derived directly from its English name.

A compound is basically a combination of two or more elements, in a particular ratio or relative proportions. A chemical formula is an expression which represents each element of a compound and its relative proportion. Example: H2O is the chemical formula for water. This means water is made from 2 parts of H and 1 part of O. Similar to sulfuric acid, H2SO4 has the chemical formula. This means that there is a 2:1 ratio of O, H, and S in this compound.

So, chemical formula in chemistry is like a shorthand representation of the elements in a compound using the specific symbols assigned to each element which are mentioned in the periodic table.

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Types of Chemistry Formulae and Chemical Formulae

A molecular formula includes the chemical symbols and subscripts of the constituent elements. Subscripts indicate the number of atoms in the constituent elements. The Molecular formula gives the exact number and types of atoms within a single molecule.

The simplest whole number ratio among all atoms in a compound’s molecule is called the empirical formula. A compound’s molecular formula can be either the same or multiple of its empirical formula.

Although atomic arrangements and bonding are easy to understand, molecule formulas can be compact and difficult to communicate. The structural formula is needed to do this. The structural formula not only indicates the number of atoms but also how they are arranged in space.

E.g. E.g.

C6H12O6 is the molecular formula that describes glucose. It tells us how many constituent atoms (carbon-hydrogen and oxygen) are in one glucose molecule.

The empirical formula for glucose is CH2O. This represents the whole number of constituent atoms (viz. C, H, and O).

The structural formula for glucose will show how each carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atom are bonded to a glucose molecule. Below is the structure of a glucose molecule.

How to write a chemical formula

For an ionic compound, the cations should be written first, followed by the anion. The sequence that corresponds to the bonding is followed for covalent compounds.

Subscript is used to cross-over the charges for the anionic and cationic parts of an ionic compound formula. For example, PO43- and H+ are combined to make H3PO4.

Another example is the formation Lithium oxide.

This Lithium ion has +1 charge and -2 charges on the oxygen atom to create Li2O.

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List of Chemical Compound Formula

Common Acids

Acid NameFormula
Sulfurous acidH₂SO₃
Sulfuric acidH₂SO₄
Hyposulfurous AcidH₂SO₂
Hydrochloric AcidHCl
Nitrous acidHNO₂
Nitric acidHNO₃
Pernitric acidHNO₄
Carbonic acidH₂CO₃
Oxalic acidH₂C₂O₄
Acetic acidCH₃COOH
Phosphoric acidH₃PO₄
Phosphorous acidH₃PO₃
Hypophosphorous acidH₃PO₂
Bromic acidHBrO₃
Hydroiodic acidHI
Hydrofluoric acidHF
Chromic acidH₂CrO₄
Chromus acidH₂CrO₃
Boric acidH₃BO₃
Citric acidC₆H₈O₇
Formic acidHCOOH

Common Bases

Base NameFormula
Lithium hydroxideLiOH
Sodium hydroxideNaOH
Potassium hydroxideKOH
Calcium hydroxideCa(OH)₂
Barium hydroxideBa(OH)₂
Aluminium hydroxideAl(OH)₃
Arsenic hydroxideAs(OH)₃
Ammonium hydroxideNH₄OH
Lead(IV) hydroxidePb(OH)₄
Mercury(I) hydroxideHg2(OH)₂
Mercury(II) hydroxideHg(OH)₂
Tin(II) hydroxideSn(OH)₂

Common Salts

Acidic salt:Salts formed from a partial neutralization reaction of a weak acid and a strong base are generally ionisable with H+ ions.

The most common are NaHSO4, H2PO4 and KH2PO4.

Basic saltA salt that is formed from the reaction of a weak acid with a strong base.

Common one: 2PbCO3. Pb(OH),2

Neutral Salt:A salt formed from the reaction of a strong acid with a strong base. They combine a cation with an anion. Cation is usually written first, followed by anion, with their charges crossed out to subscript. The table below shows how to write chemical formulae for several salts.

Common Cations and Anions are:

Ammonium NH⁴⁺Acetate CH₃COO⁻
Calcium Ca²⁺Carbonate CO₃²⁻
Iron Fe²⁺, Fe³⁺Chloride Cl⁻
Potassium K+Cyanide CN⁻
Sodium Na+Fluoride F⁻
Copper Cu²⁺Nitrate NO³⁻
Zinc Zn²⁺Nitrite NO²⁻
Magnesium Mg²⁺Oxide O²⁻
Lead Pb²⁺Phosphate PO₄³⁻
Silver Ag⁺Sulfate SO₄²⁻

Double Salt: Salts having more than one cation or anion.

Common are:

Mohr’s salt – (NH₄)₂ Fe (SO₄)₂.6H₂O

Potassium Alum – K₂ SO₄ Al₂ (SO₄)₃.24H₂O

Mixed salts: Salts having 2 salts in a fixed ratio.


Chemical formula of some other commonly used compounds in chemistry:

Glucose – C₆H₁₂O₆

Sugar/Sucrose – C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁ 

Oxygen – O₂

Carbon dioxide – CO₂

Ammonia – NH₃

Ethanol (Alcohol) – C₂H₅OH

Vinegar – C₂H₄O₂

Baking soda – NaHCO₃

Hydrogen peroxide – H₂O₂

Benzene – C₆H₆

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