BS Full Form Hindi| Definition of “Bharat Emission Standard.

Definition: Bharat Stage

Category: Governmental » Standards

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These standards were set by the Indian government to limit the emissions of pollutants from internal combustion engines. 

These engines can emit more pollutants than the limit and they won’t be allowed to be sold on an open market. 

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) established the Bharat Stage Emission Standards. It was created within the Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change.

India introduced vehicle emission norms in 1991 for petrol vehicles and 1992 for diesel vehicles. Bharat Stage Emission Standards are the Indian equivalent of Euro standards for four-wheeled vehicles.

They have been in force since 2000. Since October 2010, Bharat Stage III norms are in force across India. Bharat stage IV norms have been in place in a few cities since April 2010. Bharat stage IV norms are in place in a few cities since April 2010. It is already in use in 13 cities.

The manufacturing companies must upgrade their technology in order to meet emission standards. This increases vehicle costs. 

The main reason for slow upgrades to emission standards is cost. There are arguments that the cost increase is offset by the savings in health care costs, as pollutants causing disease are reduced with an upgrade to emission standards. 

These emission norms are also influenced by fuels. The European production norms have been used to align the fuel specifications.

Back in September 2016, there was much excitement when the Government of India announced a leapfrog to Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission standards. 

It was also clear that the goal would be difficult to achieve and meet the April 1, 2020 deadline. India is the first country to jumpfrog from Euro IV equivalent emission standards to Euro VI equivalent standards. There were also many questions and doubts: Could the refineries produce enough ultralow sulfur fuel to supply the whole country? 

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Could Indian automakers make their vehicles BS VI compliant by April 1, 2020? Are consumers willing to spend more for BS VI vehicles?

Many considered the feat of leapfrogging in less than four years impossible. India, despite Coronavirus, turned the challenge into a chance and produced BS VI-compliant vehicles and fuel on schedule. 

Some might not have realized the importance of this significant leap forward, as the country was locked down on April 1, 2020. This victory was possible because of what?

One, ultralow-sulfur fuel can be found. The BS VI fuel has a sulfur limit of 10 parts per millions (ppm). This is a crucial feature. 

This limit is required for modern aftertreatment technologies, such as gasoline particulate filters, diesel particulate filter, and selective catalytic reducer systems, that must meet BS VI emission standards. The National Capital Territory (NCT) started to receive 10 ppm sulfur fuel as early as April 2018. 

Several cities in the National Capital Region switched to 10 ppm fuel as soon as they could. The entire NCR had been supplied with BS VI fuel by October 2018. 

According to the chairman of Indian Oil Corp, the firm that supplies roughly half of India’s fuel, almost all refineries in the country started producing the ultralow-sulfur fuel by the end of 2019, to ensure the fuel needed for BS VI was on the market as scheduled. ICCT’s recent sampling revealed that many cities, including those outside the NCR, had begun to receive 10 ppm fuels by 2019.

Indian auto industry has also proven its inventiveness. Tata and Mahindra & Mahindra rolled out BS VI-certified models three to four months before April 1, and Maruti Suzuki launched its first BS VI-compliant gasoline vehicle in April 2019, a whole year prior to the deadline. 

The company had sold over 500,000 BS VI vehicles by January 2020. Not only that, but the domestic brands completed BS VI research and development work mostly in-house.

Similar progress was made by manufacturers of two- and 3-wheelers. Bajaj Auto introduced 14 BS VI-compliant threewheelers, while Honda launched three scooters as well as two motorcycles. 

In order to ensure that these vehicles were not scrapped by April 2020, the auto industry also reduced production of BS IV vehicles. (However, due to the Coronavirus, the sale of BS IV vehicles will be allowed for 10 days after the current lockdown is lifted.)

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India’s automobile manufacturers are abandoning small diesel cars due to BS VI standards. This has made them less appealing to customers. This is because BS VI diesel vehicles are costlier, require more maintenance, and the government removed its subsidy on diesel fuel. 

These changes have a significant impact on diesels’ value proposition. Smaller engines are more attractive than gasoline cars, which is why they are cheaper and more cost-effective. As announced by Toyota, Tata and Maruti Suzuki (Tata and Maruti Suzuki), small diesel car sales are likely to decline.

However, large diesel cars could still have a higher share because of the popularity of larger vehicles like sport utility and multi-purpose vehicles. The diesel engine is the most popular in this segment.

Although BS VI’s successful launch is cause to celebrate, it is not the end. Nearly half of India’s vehicular emission today comes from vehicles older than 10 years.

The near-term benefits to BS VI standards are increased by the scrapping of older vehicles, particularly commercial vehicles. BS VI standards are not likely to stop the growth of India’s vehicle market in the future. However, they can reduce the rate at which emissions rise, but not in the long-term. 

Below is an illustration of the expected rise in PM emissions from 2025 to 2035. Additional reduction measures will be required. They could include, but not be limited to, accelerating retirement of BS III/IV vehicles after 2025, and seeking emission reductions that go beyond BS VI.Figure 1: PM emissions based on vehicle age. The year represents the calendar year in which vehicles were sold.

ICCT previously found that a scrappage program combined with BS VI standards could achieve short-term emissions reductions from retiring vehicles and ensure that the long-term emissions reduction potential of the standards is also achieved.

Accelerating finalization of the long-awaited scrappage program would help India take full advantage of the efforts that went into achieving BS VI standards and promote the maximum benefits for air quality and public health.

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Additional reductions could be achieved by closing some gaps between BS VI standards and final Euro 6/VI standards. BS VI doesn’t yet fully adopt the Worldwide harmonized Light-duty vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). 

The Worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicles Test Cycle, on-board fuel consumption meters and full harmonization (RDE) of the real-driving emissions proposal (WLTP) are absent. These include Euro VI D, Euro VI D and Euro VI E (the latter being increased share of urban driving and cold start testing). These requirements are important to ensure that India’s in-use diesel vehicles comply with type approval.

For fleet emissions monitoring, the identification of individual high-emitting vehicles, and the screening for groups of high-emitting vehicles, remote sensing is potentially the best option. Remote sensing is used extensively in many countries worldwide. 

Particularly, China and the United States have shown how remote sensing can be used to identify and enforce high-emitting cars. Further, the recent real-world emission measurement in London again proved the effectiveness of the tool in identifying high-emitting vehicles.

There are also efforts underway to develop policies that go beyond Euro 6/VI. These include U.S. These include Tier 3, Euro 7/VII and the California heavy-duty vehicle low NOx standards. 

India has the opportunity to take part and lead in these areas. India must continue to improve on BS VI and reduce tailpipe emissions, given the future growth of its vehicle market.

All things considered, the mission that seemed impossible five years ago is now possible. Although the task of reducing pollution from the transport sector’s air is still not complete, there are doubts today about vehicle electrification.

This doubts what the previous doubts were about BS VI. But now that we’ve seen what a determined push can achieve, it would be a mistake for India to aim low on electric vehicles. India should instead choose to continue the momentum of BS VI, and work harder to achieve its goals.

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